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Read and translate the text. Building Construction
Building construction is the techniques and industry involved in the assembly and erection of structures, especially those used to provide shelter. Building construction is an ancient human activity. It began with the need for a controlled environment to regulate the effects of climate.
Human shelters were at first very simple and perhaps lasted only a few days or months. Gradually more durable structures began to appear. The first shelters were dwellings, but later other functions, such as food storage and ceremony, were housed in separate buildings. Some structures began to have symbolic as well as functional value, marking the beginning of the distinction between architecture and building.
The history of building is marked by a number of tendencies. One is the increasing durability of the materials used. Early building materials were leaves, branches, and animal hides. Later, more durable natural materials--such as clay, stone, and timber--and, finally, synthetic materials – such as brick, concrete, metals, and plastics – were used. Another is a search for buildings of ever greater height and span; this was made possible by the development of stronger materials and by knowledge of how materials behave and how to exploit them to greater advantage. A third major trend involves the degree of control over the interior environment of buildings: increasingly precise regulation of air temperature, light and sound levels, humidity, and other factors that affect human comfort. Another trend is the change in energy available to the construction process, starting with human muscle power and developing toward the powerful machinery used today.
At present building construction is complex. The design process for buildings is highly organized and consists of research establishments that study material properties, officials who adopt safety standards and designers who determine user needs and design a building to meet those needs.
The construction process is also highly organized; it includes the manufacturers of building products and systems, the craftsmen who assemble them on the building site, the contractors who employ and coordinate the work of the craftsmen, and consultants who specialize in such aspects as construction management, quality control, and insurance.
Building construction today is a significant part of industrial culture, which can produce a widely varied built environment to serve the diverse needs of society.
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