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Карцинома (також рак) — злоякісна пухлина з епітеліальної тканини.

Читайте также:
  1. Жатыр карциномасы
  3. Тканини.

Лікування раку залежить від типу пухлини, її локалізації, будови, стадії захворювання згідно з класифікацією TNM. TNM ( tumor, nodus и metastasis) — міжнародна класифікація стадій розвитку ракових пухлин.

Розрізняють такі типи лікування:

1. Хірургічне видалення пухлини з прилеглими тканинами. Ефективне для лікування пухлин невеликих розмірів, доступних для хірургічного втручання, і при відсутності метастазів. Нерідко після хірургічного лікування можуть виникати рецидиви пухлини.

2. Променева терапія застосовується для лікування малодиференційованих пухлин, чутливих до радіації. Також застосовуються для локального руйнування метастазів.

3. Хіміотерапія використовується для лікування пізніх стадій раку з використанням лікарських препаратів, що руйнують або сповільнюють ріст ракових клітин.

Тепер найвдаліші результати лікування раку спостерігаються при використанні комбінованих методів лікування (хірургічного, променевого та хіміотерапевтичного). При лікуванні лейкемії та лімфоми досить ефективною є трансплантація кісткового мозку та стовбурових клітин периферійної крові, оскільки це дозволяє використовувати дуже великі дози радіації.

Існують три вида трансплантації:

· Аутогенна транплантація — хворому пересаджують його власні клітини.

· Сингенна транплантація — пацієнтам пересаджують стовбурові клітини їхніх однояйцевих близнюків.

· Алогенна транплантація — пересаджуються стовбурові клітини брата, сестри, батьків. Як матеріал можуть також використовуватись стовбурові клітини людини, що не є родичем пацієнта.

Також хворим, що проходять лікування хімічною терапією від раку призначають імуноглобулін — речовину, яку отримують із плазми крові здорової людини. Справа в тому, що лікування певних типів раку призводить до значного пригнічення організму, він майже не продукує власні антитіла, у такому випадку імуноглобулін постачає організмові готові антитіла.

Exercise 16. Explain the following terms in English:

1. Carcinoma

2. Sarcoma

3. Lymphoma

4. Leukemia

5. Adenoma


1. Cancer, known medically as …, is a broad group of various diseases, all involving unregulated cell growth.

a) a benign neoplasm

b) a malignant neoplasm

c) a non-cancerous neoplasm

d) a cancerous neoplasm

e) a neoplasm


2. The cancer may also … more distant parts of the body through the lymphatic system or bloodstream.

a) spreads to

b) spread to

c) to spread to

d) spreading to

e) being spread to


3. There are over … different known cancers that afflict human the most of them may be classified into five broad groups.

a) 2

b) 20

c) 200

d) 202

e) 222


4. are cancers that begin in the bone marrow and often accumulate in the bloodstream.

a) Sarcoma

b) Lymphoma

c) Leukemia

d) Leukemias

e) Adenoma


5. Many things are known …. the risk of cancer, including tobacco use, certain infections, radiation, lack of physical activity, obesity, and environmental pollutants.

a) increase

b) increasing

c) to have increased

d) to be increased

e) to increase


6. Approximately …. of cancers are entirely hereditary.

a) five to five percent

b) five to twenty percent

c) five to two percent

d) five to ten percent

e) five to six percent


7. Most people don't realize that cancer is …. in many cases.

a) unpreventable

b) preventable

c) preventive

d) protective

e) unpresentable


8. Cancers that are closely linked to certain behaviors are the … to prevent.

a) easiest

b) the easiest

c) easy

d) easier

e) the easyest


9. Some cancer prevention is based on systematic screening …. small irregularities or tumors as early as possible even if there are no clear symptoms present.

a) in order to demonstrate

b) in order to develop

c) in order to damage

d) in order to delay

e) in order to detect


10. Breast self-examination, mammograms, testicular self-examination, and Pap smears are …. for various cancers.

a) common screening methods

b) common searching methods

c) common monitoring methods

d) common researching methods

e) common imaging methods


Cancer - Рак


Exercise 1. Read the following words, translate them and use in the sentences of your own.

1. Cancer 2. Aetiology 3. Metastasis 4. Susceptibility 5. Malignant 6. Benign 7. To enclose 8. Heavy smoker 9. Incidence 10. Significantly


Exercise 2. Analyze the structure of the following terms and translate them.

Cancerlike, cancerism, cancerous, carcinogenic, metastasize, metastable, metastatic.


Exercise 3. Match the words with their definitions.

Metastasis a type of X-ray, using a special dye, that helps show blood vessels and blood flow. It's also used to identify certain kinds of tumors.
Radiologist a procedure where a bone that has cancer is removed and the limb (usually an arm or leg) is saved from amputation by filling the gap with a bone graft or special metal rod.
Ultrasound (also called sonography): a procedure in which the doctor opens the skin to remove an entire lump, tumor, or suspicious area for purposes of diagnosis.
Oncogenes a special type of care for people who are in the last phase of an illness. This type of care can be either inpatient or outpatient.
Dyspnea a term used to describe tumors that are slow-growing, noncancerous, and do not spread to surrounding tissue.
Limb-salvage surgery radiation therapy that usually requires a stay in the hospital for several days for careful monitoring. The radioactive material may be placed in small tubes that are implanted into the cancerous tumor or a body cavity, or swallowed or injected into the bloodstream.
Excisional biopsy difficulty breathing in which a person feels short of breath.
Malignant another word for cancerous.
Hospice a group of different medical specialists and health care professionals who help a patient through the challenges of dealing with cancer.
Internal radiation the spread of disease (in this case, cancer) from the original site to other parts of the body.
Angiogram genes that cause cells to grow and duplicate. Under certain circumstances, oncogenes can mutate and cause cells to grow abnormally, leading to cancer.
Benign a doctor who specializes in reading and interpreting X-rays and scans.
Cancer care team ultrasound, or ultrasonography, is another way doctors can take a look inside the body. Instead of X-rays, sound waves are bounced off the kidneys, the heart, or other areas of the body.

Exercise 4. Read and translate the text.


The problem of cancer is being discussed in innumerable papers from all parts of the world because cancer still continues to be the first among human diseases.

The term “cancer” was first used by Gallen (231-201) a famous Roman physician who had described the disease of a mammary gland under this term. Cancer was mentioned about 3500 years ago in the ancient Egyptian Ebers papyrus. In the era of Greek medicine it was regarded as an unnatural growth caused by black bile, and was called "carcinoma".

Cancer or carcinoma, as it is often called, is a malignant tumour that arises from epithelial cells. A tumour is a mass of new tissue that grows independently from its surrounding structures. A malignant tumour is made up of connective tissue enclosing epithelial cells. Some tumours remain localized, others rapidly invade healthy tissue and metastasize leading to early death. The incidence of carcinomas comprises 90% of all malignant tumours, the rest are sarcomas.

The development of certain types is connected with the so called carcinogenic substances and rays.

It has been proved that cancer may develop due to contact with certain chemical substances, such as aromatic amines, chromic acids, arsenic acids, anilines and others. Cigarette smoking plays a major part in the aetiology of lung cancer. 96 % of patients with lung cancer were heavy cigarette smokers. Certain viruses are also considered to be carcinogenic.

The distribution of various types of cancer vary geographically. The incidence of lung cancer is much higher among Europeans. The incidence of lung cancer is much higher among Europeans. In South Africa 50 % of all types of cancer comprise carcinomas of the liver, while in Europe liver-cell carcinomas comprise only 1 %.The high frequency of liver cancers in certain tropical countries could be related to the incidence of viral diseases of the liver in the same countries. Many investigators suggest that viral hepatitis could represent a precancerous disease.

The age significantly affects the incidence of cancer. Susceptibility of cancer increases with age. The most important thing in prognosis of patients with carcinoma is the grade of malignancy, and therefore, the sooner the diagnosis is made, the better the prognosis. Each type of cancer is curable if it is timely recognized and proper treatment is administered.


Exercise 5. Answer the questions.

1. What kind of disease is cancer?

2. Where does cancer arise from?

3. What plays a major part in the etiology of lung cancer?

4. When was the term "cancer" first used?

5. When did the term "carcinoma" appear?

6. What is the malignant tumour composed of?

7. What carcinogenic substances do you know?

8. Why is smoking a harmful habit?

9. Why does the distribution of different types of cancer vary?


Exercise 6. Translate the following words and word combinations

Широке дослідження, етіологія раку, успішне лікування, рак молочної залози, здорова тканина, сполучна тканина, вірусний гепатит, рак печінки, сприйнятливість до раку, відсоток вірусних захворювань.

Exercise 7. Fill in the cells of the table where it is possible.

Nouns Verbs Adjectives


Exercise 8. Read and translate the case report. Use the verbs in parentheses in the correct form, fill in the gaps with prepositions, put questions to the underlined parts of the text.

Case report

A 38-year-old woman (to admit) … the treatment of menorrhagia and fibroid uterus. … the course of hysterectomy, a solitary, solid, pediculated tumour 4 cm. … diameter was found to be attached to the inferior margin … the right lobe of the liver by peritoneal folds. This pedicle was excised, and the base (to be sutured) … chromic catgut.


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