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INDUSTRY AND AGRICULTURE OF THE UK
In the past English industrial prosperity rested on a few important products, such as textiles, coal and heavy machinery. Now the UK has a great variety of industries, e.g. heavy and light industry, chemical, aircraft, electrical automobile and many other industries. The UK is considered one of the world’s major manufacturing nations. Now high technology industries are more developed than heavy engineering and other traditional industries have experienced a certain decline. Certain areas are traditionally noted for various types of industries. For instance, Newcastle is famous for coal industry, the country of Lancashire for its textile industry. The Midlands, of the central countries of England, are famous for the production of machinery, coal, motor cars and chemicals. In recent times regional industrial distinctions have become less clear as more and more new factories are built in the different parts of the country.
Speaking about the cities of the UK the first mention should be made of London, the capital of the UK. It is a big port on the river Thames, a major commercial, industrial centre. Leeds is the centre of the clothing industry producing woolen articles. Glasgow is a major port on the river Clyde where shipbuilding industry is developed.
Three quarters of the UK’s land is dedicated to agriculture. About two per cent of the population of the UK is engaged in the agriculture, but yields of English farms and pastures are very high. Wheat, barley, oats and potatoes are the most important crops grown. Sheep, cattle and pigs are the most numerous types of livestock. Sheep is a source of both wool for textile and mutton for food industry. Mutton is the best liked English meat.
MARKETING METHODS & ADVERTISING
Before selling the goods you must do a lot of market research first. The information needed can be obtained from trade associations, trade journals or from specialized consultant companies. The information you are interested in is if there is any demand for your deeds, what the market potential is, what sort of competition you will meet, i.e. how the price of your goods compares with other competitive products including those produced locally, local conditions and preferences, local trading customs and habits, what seasonal factors should be taken into account and the like.
But in general marketing covers not only market research, but also planning the selection (assortment) of goods, and consequently the production itself, price policy, advertising and promotion of sales, controlling the sales and post-sales servicing.
So marketing is a system of running all the business activities of a company (organization) in respect of coordinating supply and demand for goods produced.
Advertising is an important means of promoting the goods that are being produced already as well as new lines in business.
There are special firms dealing with advertising. Different kinds of mass media - TV, radio, newspapers, journals, magazines, and posters are used for advertising goods. Special leaflets, booklets and other printed matter about the goods may be published for the same purpose. Participation in fairs and exhibitions helps to promote our goods as well. The choice of media for advertising depends on the kind of goods and on the local conditions and people’s habits: sometimes TV and radio aids are best, in other cases it maybe journals or leaflets distributed among potential buyers.
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