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SENTENCE WORD ORDER

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  1. B Watch section 1. While watching number these sentences in the correct order from 1 to 6.
  2. B. Complete the following sentences with the Past Simple Tense of the verbs of the previous exercise.
  3. B. Write sentences in the way shown.
  4. C Use a dictionary to check any underlined phrases that are new. Then discuss with your partner whether you think the sentences are true or false.
  5. C./ translate the following sentences; mind the ways of rendering the geographical names.
  6. Choose between the infinitive and the gerund as the object to an adjective in the following sentences
  7. Complete the sentences 1-10 below with the gerund as subject. You should use your own variants. The first is given for you.
  8. Complete the sentences by putting the verb in brackets into Future Simple Passive.
  9. Complete the sentences filling in the appropriate word from the box. Each word should be used once. Pay attention to the form of the word you insert.
  10. Complete the sentences, as in the example.
Adverbial Modifier + Subject + Predicate + Object + Adverbial Modifier

The Participle has two syntactic functions:

  An Attribute An Adverbial Modifier
building The young men building our house with me are my brothers. Молодые люди, которые строят наш дом вместе со мной, мои братья. Не made his living building summer houses or garages for people. Он зарабатывал на жизнь, строя людям беседки и гаражи.
being built The white stone house being built near the park is a new building of our Art museum. Белокаменное сооружение, строящееся у парка, – новое здание нашего музея изобрази- тельных искусств. Being builtwith great skill and care, the mansion has been used by the family for centuries. Так как особняк был построен (будучи построенным) очень искусно, он служит семье уже несколько веков.
built They are reconstructing the house builtin the 18th century. Они реставрируют здание, построенное в XVIII веке. If built of the local stone, the road will serve for years. Если построить дорогу из этого местного камня, она будет служить долгие годы.
having built Having built the house, he began building a greenhouse. Построив дом, он принялся за оранжерею.
having been built Having been built of concrete, the house was always cold in winter. Так как дом был построен из бетона, в нем всегда было холодно зимой.

NOTES

1. In some cases Participle I Active in the function of an attribute is rendered in Russuan by a clause.

He came back and stood on the steps leading down to the street.

Он вернулся и стоял на лестнице, которая вела на улицу.

2. Participle I Passive (being read) is very seldom used as an attribute.


3. The Past Participle (Participle II) can be an adverbial modifier when it is used with the conjunctions when, while, as if/as though, though, unless, if.

When told to come in he seemed to change his mind.

Когда его попросили войти, он, казалось, передумал.

She continued staring at the screen as if fascinated.

Она продолжала смотреть на экран, как будто завороженная.

4. The verbs catch, spot, find, discover and smell are not followed by an infinitive. All may be followed by an object and a Present Participle (Participle I).



The teacher caught the pupil cheating.

The search party found (spotted, discovered) the climbersclingingto a rock face.

He smelt the meat cooking.

The verbs spot, find and discover may be followed by an object + Past Participle:

The police found the money hidden in a disused garage.

5. The verbs leave and keep (someone in a certain situation or condition) share some of the characteristics of find and discover. They can be followed by an object + Present or Past Participle:

He left me sitting in the restaurant alone.

He kept me waiting.

He left his bicycle propped against a wall.

He kept the dog chained up.

6. If the actions named by the Participle and by the predicate closely follow each other, the Indefinite Participle is used instead of the Perfect Participle.

Seeingme he smiled happily.

Увидев меня, он счастливо улыбнулся.

7. When we mention two consecutive actions one of them may be named by the Indefinite Participle.

He looked at me smiling.

Он посмотрел на меня и улыбнулся. Seeing that it was getting cold we went home.



Мы увидели, что становится холодно, и пошли домой.

 


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