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On a chemical composition the humus is identical not everywhere; the humus formed on limestones and the clays isn't uniform with what was formed on the loess. Nevertheless all humus soils have many signs the general, namely:
1. Considerable content of organic substances and of it dark color. The content of humus in the humus fluctuates from 16 to 4%. The greatest content of humus is observed in the humus on limestones and on the loess especially rich with carbonic lime. In such soils the high soderkzhaniye of humus came пе only from accumulation the organic of substances, but also that leaching of carbonic lime from the initial soil raised content of all other substances and including перегноя. Depending on the bigger or smaller contents in the loess of clay and sand the content of humus too changes: at the bigger content of sand it is less, owing to permeability of the soil for water and air, why and decomposition of organic substances was quicker.
2. Distribution of organic substances in different layers of the humus is uniform everywhere: the greatest number of humus is observed in the top layer, and then with depth the contents it gradually decreases. In general the layer of earth of dark color most often happens in the humus with power from 3 to 1 foots; in soils limy it ordinary more small. But in general absolutely exact of depth of this layer are impossible owing to reduction of intensity of coloring.
3. The contents of substances in the humus in general considerably — from 15 almost to 40%. Besides, substances contain известь in bigger quantity, than magnesia and as limy zeolites in general are easier dissolved, than magnesian, the structure of the humus from this party is very favorable for plants. Thus it is necessary to notice that if to investigate an elephant of the humus from different depth on the same place, it that the difference in their structure is caused only by distinction in the content of humus and carbonic lime. If to exclude these two substances and to calculate structure of other part, it is identical at a different depth. Two tables are provided to told here: in from them the structure of the humus from 9 various, in the second — structure of different layers of the humus from the same place is shown.
4. Efficiency of fertilizers on humus soils of Kazakhstan
The main objective of agriculture at the present stage of development of agricultural production is preservation of fertility of soils of lands of agricultural purpose, increase of productivity and quality of production.
In the solution of this task the important part is assigned to mineral fertilizers. However volumes of their application are obviously insufficient now. At requirement in nitric and phosphoric fertilizers of 65 kg/hectare in their physical weight on hectare now in northern Kazakhstan no more than 4 kg or 6% of requirement are applied.
The researches conducted under production conditions within five years on humus of the southern carbonate and three years on humus ordinary, showed efficiency of introduction of nitric fertilizers on the southern carbonate humus and joint introduction of nitric and phosphoric fertilizers on ordinary humus (see the table).
On humus of the southern carbonate nitric fertilizers and joint introduction of nitric and phosphoric fertilizers were more effective. Such result is caused by two factors. First, the last three years were absent rainfall during a of plants and therefore wheat plants poorly used phosphorus from fertilizers. Secondly, transition of farms to the minimum technology of cultivation of crops led to decrease in nitrification process in the soil. As a result the effect from phosphoric fertilizers without introduction of nitric fertilizers on sternevy predecessors strongly decreased.
On the ordinary humus having large supplies of organic substance in the soil, than the southern carbonate humus phosphoric fertilizers and their joint introduction with the nitric are more effective. Here respectively 3,5 and 6,8 c/hectare of an increase of a crop on average in three last years with fluctuations by years from 0,6 to 5,1 c/hectare are received. Payment 1kg the physical weight of fertilizers grain on ordinary humus soils made 6,5 kg from introduction of phosphoric fertilizers; the nitric – 4,1 kg; the nitrogen-phosphorus – 6,0 kg. On the southern carbonate humus from introduction at crops on backgrounds of nitrogen in N20 dose payment of fertilizers by grain made 2,7 kg.
Thus, introduction of mineral fertilizers is an essential factor of growth of efficiency of an arable land. Introduction of nitric fertilizers provided an increase of a crop of 1,6-2,4 c/hectare, and joint introduction of nitric and phosphoric fertilizers in a zone of ordinary humus allowed to increase productivity of wheat on 6,8 c/hectare.
As required to humus soils with the normal acid environment it is better to introduce sour fertilizers: potassium sulfate, saltpeter (except sodium), sulfate of ammonium and other. And for the rest the humus as well as other views of soils, needs usual standard additives: composts (0.5-1 tons on a hundred part), manure, organic and mineral fertilizers. It is useful to sow time in 5-6 years on a siderata site (the plant which are grown up as organic fertilizers with the subsequent seal to the soil).
For this purpose it is enough to bring in the earth extinguished lime from calculation: 0.2 kg on 1 sq.m of the soil. And if soils are poor in the content of magnesium, replace lime with dolomitny flour (in the same proportions). Typical humus with normal (from 7rn) acidity don't need a deoxidation. By the way, on sale there is a special indicator paper by means of which with a small error it is possible to define acidity of soils on the seasonal dacha.
In summary it is necessary to emphasize that entering into the soil of difficult compost has noticeable positive impact on its chemism, including the content of organic substance, nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, sulfur, and also reaction of the soil environment. Generalizing all above, it is possible to tell that humus soils as for cultural plants have Wednesday the high content of humus and the powerful humous horizon; comprise a significant amount of cindery and nitric food for plants; being saturated Sa img, possess reaction, neutral or close to it, it is clear the expressed strong granular structure; don't comprise also thedeoxidation , substances, poisonous for plants, soured; possess very favorable water, air and thermal properties, at the same time and the favorable food mode.
List of references
1. Chasovskikh N. P. Optimization of structure of cultivated areas in the Orenburg region. Orenburg: IPK "South Ural", 2005.
2. Blochin E. V. Materials on structure of a soil cover of the Orenburg region and it agroekolo-a gichesky assessment. Orenburg: Agriculture mines-in: Оренб. page - x. in-t, 1993.
3. Klimentyev A. I. Soil and ecological bases of steppe land use: erosive processes, monitoring of bald-headed soils, landscape adaptation of systems of agriculture of the Orenburg region. Yekaterinburg: OURO RAHN, 1997.
4. Ryakhovsky A. V., Baturin I. A. [etc.] Agronomical chemistry in the annex to conditions of the steppe regions of the Russian Federation. Orenburg: IPK "South Ural", 2004.
5. Ryakhovsky A. V., Baturin I. A. [etc.] Fertility of soils of the Orenburg region, use and efficiency of fertilizers at cultivation of field cultures. Orenburg: JSC IPK Yuzhny Ural, 2008.
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