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Typology of the world countries.
Typology of the world countries is one of the most difficult methodological tasks. Economists, geographers, sociologists and other scientists are dealing with those tasks. The country typology is an historical category. Really, before the beginning of 1990 of XX century, all countries of the world were divided in the three main types:
ü capitalist and
In 1990 of XX century, after the world socialist system disintegration, countries were divided into:
ü economically highly developed (Norway, Australia, the Netherlands, the United States, New Zealand, Canada, Ireland, Liechtenstein, Germany, Sweden);
ü Developing (Latin America, Africa, some countries of Asia);
ü countries with transitional economy (CIS, China, Eastern Europe)
But the binomial countries’ typology is widespread; it is divided into:
ü economically developed and
3. Political system: administrative and territorial division
Political system of any country is characterized by administrative and territorial division (ATD). Usually such division is carried out with economical, historical, national, natural and other factors. According to form of government:
1. Unitary state is a form of the government system, when there are: common constitution, legislative and executive organs in the country. Such countries in the world are majority. For example: Byelorussia, Poland, France, Sweden, Japan, Turkey, Egypt, Chile and Cuba.
2. Federative state is a form of the government system, when with the common (federal) laws and authorities, there are self-governing administrative areas – republics, states, provinces, lands, cantons that have own organs of the legislative and executive powers, though «second-order». For example: the USA, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil etc.
At the republican system legislative power belongs to the parliament, which is elected by all urban population, and executive power belongs to the government.
In the presidential republic,president has a big power. There are 100 countries in the world. These countries are widespread in Africa (for example, Egypt, Algeria, Nigeria, South Africa) and in Latin America (for example, Mexico, Brazil, Venezuela, Argentina). There are few presidential republics in the foreign Asia (for example, Iran, Pakistan, Indonesia, the Philippines), and in the foreign Europe – less (for example, France). The USA is a striking example of the presidential republic. Also all 12 CIS countries are the presidential republics. Some of them (including Russia) are called super-presidential republics, so long as their constitutions give special rights to the presidents.
Parliamentary republics are typical for the foreign Europe, but there are many such countries in the foreign Asia (for example, China, India).
Monarchies also appeared in ancient times (Ancient Rome in empire period), but monarchies were widespread in the Middle Ages and in the modern time. In 2008, there were 29 monarchies on the political world map: 13 – in Asia, 12 – in Europe, 3 – in Africa and 1 – in Oceania. There are: one empire, kingdoms, princedoms, dukedoms, sultanates, emirates, Papal States – Vatican among them. Usual authorities are lifelong and descend, but in Malaysia and UAE monarch is elected in five years term. Monarchies in the world (map)
The UK, Bahrain, Belgium, Brunei, Cambodia, Denmark, Japan, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Monaco, Morocco, Netherlands, Norway, Oman, Qatar, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Swaziland, Sweden, Thailand, Tonga
Answer the following questions:
1. What is the amount of countries now? Explain the change of the amount of countries.
2. What can you tell about the amount of the U.N.O countries-members?
3. What was the typology of the world countries before the beginning of 1990 of XX century?
4. What is the typology of the world countries now? Give examples of the countries.
5. What is unitary state? Give examples of the countries.
6. What is federative state? Give examples of the countries.
7. What is the republican system of the state? Give examples of the countries.
8. Characterize the presidential republic. Give examples of the countries.
9. Characterize the Parliamentary republics. Give examples of the countries.
10. What is monarchy? Give examples.
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