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MY HOME TOWN
I. Гласные звуки [u:], [u].
II. Text A: «Sochi».
Text B: «Rostov-on-Don».
II1.§1. Местоимения little и few и местоименные выражения a little и a few.
§2. Оборот there is / there are.
Гласный звук [u:]
При произнесении долгого гласного звука [u:] губы напряжены и сильно округлены, но гораздо меньше выдвинуты вперед, чем при русском звуке[у]: moon. На письме передается буквосочетанием двойное О, за исключением случаев перед буквойk.
Например: soon — скоро, вскоре,moon — луна
Исключение: book — книга (краткое и)
Гласный звук [u]
При произнесении краткого гласного звука [u] губы заметно округлены, но не выдвинуты вперед, язык оттянут назад, но несколько меньше, чем для и: (u долгого). Звук напоминает безударный русский звук [у] в словах пустой, тупой, произнесенный без выдвижения губ вперед:
hook —крюк, look — взгляд
Запомните слова, в которых в качестве исключения произносится [u]: put — класть, pull — тянуть, push — толкать, full — полный
Text A: «SOCHI»
«Big Sochi — the best place on the Earth!»
Hello, everyone! Here is Ann Sokolova again. This time I'll tell you about my lovely hometown — Sochi. I am sure everyone knows where Sochi is. For those who are not really sure Iremind that it is situated on the Black Sea coast about 1500 km south from Moscow.
But what makes this city so special? Sochi is called the city of three seasons because there's no winter here. As we usually say, «the golden autumn slowlyturns into the early spring.» When golden leaves slowly fall down on the earth the first flowers begin to blossom. Sochi is the only northern subtropical city in Russia. One can bathe in the Black Sea from May till October because the water of the Black Sea is still warm. The water of the Black Sea contains many chemical substances such as iodine, chlorine, bromine, sulphates, carbonates, sodium, potassium, etc. All of them react with your body and make you healthier. There are many mineral water springs in Sochi and its area.
Have you ever heard the name Big Sochi? Sochi is one of the moststretched cities along the sea coast — it is 148 km long! Small towns and cities Adler, Khosta, Kudepsta, Dagomys and Lazarevskoye belong to Big Sochi!
The history of this area goes back to the ancient times. One can call this area«the Cradle of Mankind». People came here from the Asia Minor 400-350 thousand years ago. There are more than 150 historical places of interest in the area. Here the camps and caves of prehistoric people have been found.
The dolmens — massive prehistoric grave structures from the 2nd thousand B.C. are the features of the Bronze era. The most ancient five-stone dolmens are found in the Sochi area. Travellers of the 19th century called dolmens «the houses of the giants» because each grave stone weighs from 500 to 3000 kg. It is still uncertain what technical developments made it possible to construct such structures.
The rich lands of Caucasus alwaysattracted invaders: Greeks, Romans, Arabs, Genuese, Turks.
In the VIth century B.C. the Black Sea coast attracted Greek colonists, who have based a number oftrade-settlements, such as Dioscuria (modern city of Sukhumi), Pitiunt (Pitsunda), Triglif (Gagra).
Christian religion was brought over from the Byzantynne three centuries earlier than to Russia. In the end of Xth — beginning of the XIth centuries A.D. the first known Christian constructions were built in Loo, Galitsino and Veseloye.
During the XVIIIth-XIXth centuries Russiaconductedlong wars with Turkey for theexit to the Black Sea. In 1829, after the end of Russian-Turkish war, by thepeace treaty the Black Sea coast of Caucasus, from themouth of the Kubanriverup to a fort St.Nicholas (to the south of modern city Poti), has departed to Russia.
Symbol of the victory of the Russian weapon in the war of 1829 is the monument near modern hotel «Leningrad» — «Anchor and Cannon».
The end of Russian-Turkish war has not solved all the problems of strengthening of Russia on the Black Sea coast. The Black Sea coastal line consisting of 17 forts was created with thispurpose.
On April 21st, 1838 a small wooden fortress was established in the Sochi river area to protect this land from local tribes. It was named Alexandria in honour of emperess Alexandra. It was renamed one year later, on May 18, 1839 and became Navaginskoye. But in 1854, because of the beginning of the Crimean war, the fortress was destroyed by Russian army. Russians left this area. Only 10 years later, on March 25th, 1864 the new fortress named Dakhovskiy was established on the place of the Navaginskiy fortress.
In 1896 by the decision of the Tsarist government fortress Dakhovskiy was renamed in the settlement of Sochi, after the name of the river Sochi.
In the end of XIXth century the Black Sea coast was intensivelyoccupied by the immigrants from central parts of Russia, Moldova, the Ukraine, Byelorussia, Georgia and Armenians and Greeks from Turkey. The Sochi district becomes multinational area of Russian Empire.
In Soviet times Sochi was a quickly developing port, industrial andresort city on the Black Sea. The fast development of the city and construction of modern houses wasdue to Joseph Stalin's sympathy to this place. Many streets in the center of Sochi look like the center of Moscow built in 30s and 50s.
Until now the favourite residence of Russian Presidents was Bocharov creek (ручей). Ski resorts of Krasnaya polyana, warm blue waters of Black Sea,luxurious tennis courts createirresistable atmosphere around the place.
I guess, I have taken a lot of your attention already. You know yourself what a popular resort is Sochi nowadays. Just buy the ticket and have your suitcases packed!
to remind — напоминать
to turn into — прeвращаться (во что-либо)
blossom — цвести
chemical substances — химические вещества
iodine — йод
chlorine — хлор
bromine — бром
carbonates — карбонаты
sodium — натрий
potassium — калий
to be stretched — быть вытянутым
events — события, мероприятия
«the Cradle of Mankind» — «колыбель человечества»
B.C. (Before Christ) — до н.э.
Asia Minor — п-ов Малая Азия
camp — лагерь
cave [keiv] — пещера
Bronze era — бронзовый век
pre-historic — доисторический
grave structures — могильники
dolmens — дольмены
features — особенности
to weigh — весить
uncertain — неопреленный
construct — возводить, строить
attract — привлекать
invader — захватчик
trade-settlements — торговые поселения, фактории
Byzantynne — Византия
A.D. — (Anno Domini) — нашей эры (н.э.)
to conduct — проводить
exit — выход
peace treaty ['tri:ti] — мирный договор
mouth of the river — устье реки
weapon — оружие
anchor — якорь
cannon — пушка
purpose — цель
fortress — форт, укрепление
in honour of emperess Alexandra — в честь императрицы Александры
to be occupied — быть занятым, заселенным
due to — благодаря (кому-либо, чему-либо)
luxurious — роскошный
irresistible — неотразимый
ADD TO YOUR ACTIVE VOCABULARY:
village — село, деревня
cossack's settlement— казачья станица
town — небольшой город
suburbs — пригороды
city — крупный город
center of the region — районный центр
capital of the republic — столица республики
capital of the federal district — столица федерального округа
ancient history — древняя история
medieval history — средневековая история
Dark Ages — средние века
Tsarist's Russia — царская Россия
Great October revolution — Великая октябрьская революция
Great Patriotic War — Великая Отечественная война
WWII (World War II) — вторая мировая война
soviet times — советские времена
former USSR — бывший СССР
c) historical center — исторический центр
cultural center — культурный центр
trade center — торговый центр
transport center — транспортный центр
Exercise 4.1. Translate into English:
1. Мой родной город был основан во время царствования Николая I.
2. Первое укрепление на месте современного Сочи было названо в честь императрицы Александры.
3. Во время Великой отечественной войны немецкие войска дважды захватывали наш город.
4. Владимир — один из древнейших русских городов.
5. Мягкий климат и плодородные земли всегда привлекали захватчиков на берега Кубани.
6. Великий русский изобретатель Владимир Комаров жил и работал в нашем городе.
7. Современный Новороссийск — это крупнейший портовый город на побережье Черного моря.
8. Наш город является одновременно крупным индустриальным и историческим центром региона.
Exercise 4.2. Answer the following questions:
1. Do you study in your hometown or you just live here while studying?
2. Do you like the city where you study? Why and why not?
3. Do you know the history of your hometown?
4. When was your hometown founded?
5. Do you know any famous people who were born in your hometown?
6. What are the places of interest in your hometown?
7. What is your favourite place in your hometown?
Exercise 4.3. Derive the adjective (прилагательное) from the noun (существительное):
• history — historical
• military —
• culture —
• science —
• industry —
• trade —
• agriculture —
• administration —
• politics —
Text B: «ROSTOV-ON-DON»
Rostov-on-Don, the capital of the Southern federal district and Rostov region, is a comparatively young city. Not so long ago Rostovites celebrated its 250th anniversary. The city was founded in 1749 when a custom-house on the Temernik river was set up. According to a legend, Tsar Peter the First tried the water from a spring when he stopped on the right bank of the Don on his way to Azov. He was so pleased with the taste of water that he called the spring «Bogaty istochnik» — Rich spring. The name of the spring gave the name to the street. The water is being bottled now and sold all over the country.
But only years later, after the death of Tsar Peter I, under the rule of Katherine II a fortress was built here. The main purpose of the fortress was to support the customs effectively operating in this trade and transport active region. The fortress was named after Dimitry Rostovsky, the Archbishop of Rostov the Great. The town grew later on, round the walls of the fortress and it was also called «Rostov which lies on the river Don».
Rostov is situated on the right bank of the river Don, not far from the Sea of Azov. Due to its geographical position the city grew rapidly.
After the hard years of the Civil War Rostovites restored the ruined economy of the region.
During the World War II Rostov was occupied by the Germans twice. They destroyed almost all the city. Nowadays Rostov is the largest city in the South of the country. It's a big sea and river port and an important railway junction. Rostov is called «The Gateway to the Caucasus».
The main branch of industry is agricultural machine building. «Rostselmash» is a giant machine building plant producing a lot of agricultural machines. Factories of Rostov produce champagne, cigarettes, musical instruments which are well-known abroad. There is also a big helicopter plant in Rostov.
Rostov is the cultural centre of the Rostov region. There are many educational establishments in Rostov including the Rostov State University founded in Warsaw in 1815. There are six theatres in Rostov (Gorky Drama Theatre, Philharmonic, Puppet Theatre, Theatre of Musical Comedy, Theatre of Young Spectators and Musical Theatre).
There are two museums (Local Lore Museum, Fine Arts Museum), eight stadiums, several Palaces of Culture, a lot of cinemas, libraries, parks and gardens.
Rostov is famous for many prominent people who lived here.
The city is very green. There are a lot of parks in the city. In summer you can see a lot of people on the beach on the left bank of the Don river.
1. What is the status of Rostov-on-Don now?
2. Is Rostov-on-Don an old city?
3. What role did Peter the Great play in the history of Rostov-on-Don?
4. Why did Peter the Great call the spring «rich».
5. When was the first fortress built? How was it called?
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