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Ought to




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1) выражает необходимость того, что соответствует морально-этическим нормам, естественно или по логике вещей следует ожидать от лица (предмета):

His parents are old and helpless. Его родители стары и беспомощны.
Не ought to take constant Ему следует (он должен)

care of them. постоянно о них заботиться.

2) выражает упрек (порицание) по поводу того, что действие было или не было выполнено:

She ought to have told me Ей следовало сказать мне об

about it before этом раньше.

You oughtn't to have done this. Вам не следовало этого делать.

Глагол to have в модальном значении

Вкачестве модального глагола to have обозначает долженство­вание как вынужденную необходимость совершения действия и пе­реводится «приходится», «пришлось», «придется».

 

  Утвердительная форма Вопросительная форма Отрицательная форма
Present I have to do it every day. She has to do it. Do you have to do it every day? Does he have to do it every day? - Yes, I do (Yes, he does). - No, I don't(No, he doesn't). I do nothave to go there every day. He does not have to go there every day.
Past I had to do it yesterday. Didyou have to do it? -Yes, I did.-No, I didn't. I did nothave to go there yesterday.
Future I shall/will have to do it. He will have to do it. Shall/Will I have to do it? Will you have to do it? - Yes, you will (Yes, I shall). - No, you won't (No, I shan't). I shall/will not have to go there tomorrow. He will not have to go there tomorrow.

Примечание. Вопросительные и отрицательные предложения с модальным глаголом to have в Present и Past строятся при помощи вспомогательного глагола to do.

Глагол to be в модальном значении

В качестве модального глагола to be обозначает необходимость, вытекающую из заранее предусмотренного плана, графика, расписания, договоренности, установленного порядка и т.д.

 

Present
I am to do it. You are to go there. The plane is to arrive at 6. Мне предстоит это сделать. Вам предстоит поехать туда. Самолет должен прибыть в 6 часов.
Past
The train was to leave at 7.10. The students of our group were to take part in the contest. He was not to come here yester­day. Поезд должен был отойти в 7.10. Студенты нашей группы должны были принять участие в соревно­вании. Он не должен был прийти сюда вчера (не планировалось, не было договоренности, чтобы он пришел).

 



Task 8. Express the following in Russian, paying special attention to modal verbs:

A. 1. When a schoolboy I could play various children's games.

2. I can't speak German. Can you? – No, I can't either.

3. Can I come in and have a word with you?

4. He can't be working at the same problem.

5. Mary can't be so careless.

B. 1. You must attend all the lectures.

2. Must we do such Tasks regularly? – Yes, you must.

3. The doctor says Mary mustn’t go out for a couple of days.

4. Where is Daddy? – He must be in the garden – watering the flowers.

5. Eve looks very happy. She must have passed the exam she was very much afraid of.

C. 1. May I take this book home? – I am afraid you can't.

2. The guests may arrive (at) any time now.

3. Where is Grandma? – She may be in the kitchen – cooking something.

4. This article might have been translated by one of our students.



D. 1. You should pay more attention to your pronunciation.

2. You shouldn’t spend so much money on clothes.

3. Why should I pay for him?

4. the question shouldn’t have been discussed in my absence.

5. Children ought to be attentive to their parents.

6. She oughtn't to have done such things.

e) 1. We are to go on an archaeological expedition this July.

2. the next lecture is to be given by Prof. Shein.

3. The students were to gather in the park.

4. The contest in swimming is to have been held last May.

5. The last train from Glasgow is to come at 9 p. m.

f) 1. You needn't do this Task in writing. You may do it orally.

2. She needn't worry. Everything has been perfectly arranged.

g) 1. The pen won't write.

2. The watch won't go.

3. No matter how hard I tried, the door wouldn’t open.

4. I will help them at the first opportunity.

5. I would give him a piece of good advice, but he wouldn’t follow it.

 


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