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Lesson 8. Moscow.
Task 1. Put a tick next to the correct answer.
1. When was Moscow first mentioned in the records?
A. 1380 B. 980 C. 1147
2. Who headed the liberation movement in the 14th century?
A. Prince Dmitry Donskoy
B. Citizen Minin and Prince Pozharsky
C. Ivan III
3. When did Moscow become the capital of Russia?
A. in the 15th century
B. in the 12th century
C. in the 16th century
4. What happened to Moscow in September of 1812?
A. rebuilt B. set ablaze C. a great festival was held
Task 2. Compare Moscow with other capitals while reading the text.
Task 3. Read the text.
Moscow is the capital and the largest city of Russia. It is the largest city in Europe, with its metropolitan area ranking among the largest urban areas in the world. Moscow is the country's political, economic, religious, financial, educational and transportation centre. It is located on the Moskva River in the Central Federal District, in the European part of Russia. Historically, it was the capital of the former Soviet Union and the Grand Duchy of Moscow, the pre-Imperial Russian state. It is the site of the Moscow Kremlin, which serves as the ceremonial residence of the President of Russia. It is home to many scientific and educational institutions, as well as numerous sport facilities. It possesses a complex transport system that includes the world’s busiest metro system, which is famous for its architecture and artwork.
The first Russian reference to Moscow dates from 1147. At that time it was a small frontier post. In 1237 Moscow felt under the yoke of the Tatars. And it was Moscow Prince Dmitry Donskoy who led the Russian troops to a decisive victory over the invaders in the battle of Kulikovo field in 1380.
By the 15th century Moscow turned into a wealthy city. It was under Ivan III that Moscow became the capital of state Muscovy. At that time the Kremlin Cathedrals were erected.
During the Time of Troubles Moscow was occupied by the Polish invaders but they were routed by the popular levy headed by Minin and Pozharsky.
In 1812 the Napoleonic army entered Moscow. The city was set ablaze. The army retreated . That was a poor substitute for the military triumph in Russia so much desired by Napoleon.
In 1941 German Army Group Centre was stopped at the outskirts of the city and then driven off in the course of the Battle of Moscow. Moscow is awarded the title of the Hero City.
There are many places of interest in Moscow. The city is famous for historical monuments, museums, art galleries and theatres. The State Historical Museum of Russia, the Pushkin Museum of fine Arts, the Tretyakov State Picture Gallery are world famous. Moscow is proud of the Bolshoi, Maly and Art theatres. The Russian State Library, founded in 1862 is the national library of Russia. Moscow is an industrial centre with highly developed engineering, electric, light and chemical industries.
There are 1696 high schools in Moscow, as well as 91 colleges. Besides these, there are 222 institutions offering higher education in Moscow, including 60 state universities and the Lomonosov Moscow State University, which was founded in 1755.
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