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Higher Education in Great Britain

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(1 - C. There are around 100 universities in Great Britain. Some are very old. Oxford and Cambridge founded in the 12-th and 13-th centuries are among the oldest universities in Europe. They both have a long and eventful history and are regarded as being academically superior to other universities and as giving special privilege and prestige.

(2 - ) Higher education began to expand in the 19-th. The 3rd university to be founded in England was at Durham in 1832, and was followed by other new universities in major cities in the late 19-th and 20-th centuries. There were further waves of expansion in the 1960s and the 1990s.

(3 - ) Nearly 50 % of 18 year olds now go to higher education in Great Britain. This is a big increase. 20 years ago, only 14 % of 18 year olds went to university. Many students go to a university in a different city or part of the country from where their families live.

(4 - ) Most universities in Great Britain teach a wide range of subjects - engineering, natural sciences, humanities and social sciences, law, accountancy, and some have medical schools. After three or four years the students will take their finals. Those who pass examinations successfully are given the Bachelor’s degree: Bachelor of Arts (BA. or Bachelor of Science (BSC.. The first postgraduate degree is Master of Arts (MA. or Master of Science (MSC.. One must study for it two years more and do a research work. Doctor of Philosophy (PhD. is the highest degree. It is given for some original research work which is an important contribution to knowledge.

(5 - ) Although universities get most of their funding from the state, higher education is not free. Until the 1990s, however, higher education was not only free, students also received grants from the government. When the government decided to expand higher education in the 1990s, it was no longer possible to provide it free of charge and to give grants. Nowadays students’ fees have increased to £3000 a year.

(6 - ) There are big debates over whether fees and taxes are discouraging students from poorer families from going to university. Government is insisting that universities use some of the money they earn in fees to offer grants to students from poorer families.


Task 3. A. Find the English equivalents of Russian words and word-combinations:

1. основанный

2. расширяться

3. целый ряд предметов

4. инженерное дело

5. естественные науки

6. гуманитарные науки

7. право

8. бухучет

9. степень бакалавра

10. бакалавр / магистр гуманитарных наук

11. бакалавр / магистр естественных наук

12. сдать экзамен

13. исследовательская работа

14. вклад в знания

15. финансирование

16. стипендия

17. бесплатно


B. Fill in the prepositions if necessary:

1. She is superior … other students ... knowledge.

2. I decided to go … the classical university.

3. Our university teaches … languages.

4. My friend is studying … the degree … medicine.

5. Jane’s contribution … the project was very important.

6. Don’t discourage her … learning.

C. Match the words with their synonyms:

1. privilege A. scholarship
2. expansion B. high status
3. research C. charge
4. original D. get
5. state e) advantage
6. receive f) development
7. prestige g) investigation
8. finals h) government
9. fee i) unusual
10. grant j) examinations


D. Match the words with their antonyms:

1. superior A. decrease
2. major B. narrow
3. increase C. rich
4. wide D. encourage
5. pass e) spend
6. free f) same
7. discourage g) inferior
8. poor h) paid
9. earn i) minor
10. different j) fail


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