АвтомобилиАстрономияБиологияГеографияДом и садДругие языкиДругоеИнформатикаИсторияКультураЛитератураЛогикаМатематикаМедицинаМеталлургияМеханикаОбразованиеОхрана трудаПедагогикаПолитикаПравоПсихологияРелигияРиторикаСоциологияСпортСтроительствоТехнологияТуризмФизикаФилософияФинансыХимияЧерчениеЭкологияЭкономикаЭлектроника
Вспомните значение следующих глаголов и подберите к ним производные. Например: to calculate — calculating, calculator, calculation.
To compute, to invent, to know, to multiply, to divide, to depend, to solve, to provide, to process, to code, to punch, to collect, to design, to store, to contribute, to use, to manipulate, to assemble, to connect, to consume, to rely, to divide, to multiply, to inform, to instruct, to discover, to operate.
6. Переведите словосочетания,содержащие:
А. Причастие I— Participle I
Computers using vacuum tubes; the machine calculating mathematical problems; the computer keeping instructions in its memory; binary code storing data and instructions; the vacuum tube controlling and amplifying -electronic signals; computers performing computations in milliseconds; electronic . pulses moving at the speed of light; students coding the information by using a binary code; devices printing the information; keyboard terminals replacing vacuum tubes.
Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 34
Б. Причастие II— Participle II
The given information; the name given to the machine; the coded data; the device used in World War II; the invention named ENIAC; the machine called EDVAC; instructions kept in the memory; the engine designed for storing data; data stored in a binary code; vacuum tubes invented by J. Neumann; the general-purpose machine proposed by Ch. Babbage; the machine provided with the necessary facts.
7. Ознакомьтесь с терминами текста 2.
analog computer [э'па?1эд kam'pjuta] — аналоговый компьютер
digital computer [fdid3rt3l kam'pjata] — цифровой компьютер
to aim guns ['eim 'длпг] — наводить орудия на цель
to figure out ['пдэг aut] — вычислять
at a fast rate [at э 'fa:st 'reit] — с высокой скоростью
memory / storage ['тетэп /'stond3] — запоминающее устройство
to store data and instructions — запоминать информацию и команды
stored program computer — компьютер с занесенной в память программой
binary code ['Ьатэп 'koud] — двоичный код condition [kan'difn] — режим, состояние, условие
vacuum tube ['vsekjuam tju:b] — электронная (вакуумная) трубка (лампа)
to amplify ['asmphfai] — усиливать
to perform computations [рэТэ:т ksmpju'teijh] — выполнять вычисления
8, Прочтите текст 2 и скажите, что вы узнали о первых циф
Text 2. THE FIRST COMPUTERS
In 1930 the first analog computer was built by American named Vannevar Bush. This device was used in Wbrld W&r II to help aim guns.
35 Unit 3. History of Computers
Many technical developments of electronic digital computers took place in the 1940s and 1950s. Mark I, the name given to the first digital computer, was completed in 1944. The man responsible for this invention was Professor Howard Aiken. This was the first machine that could figure out long lists of mathematical problems at a very fast rate.
In 1946 two engineers at the University of Pennsilvania, J.Eckert and J.Maushly, built their digital computer with vacuum tubes. They named their new invention ENIAC (the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator).
Another important achievement in developing computers came in 1947, when John von Neumann developed the idea of keeping instructions for the computer inside the computer's memory. The contribution of John von Neumann was particularly significant. As contrasted with Babbage's analytical engine, which was designed to store only data, von Neumann's machine, called the Electronic Discrete Variable Computer, or EDVAC, was able to store both data and instructions. He also contributed to the idea of storing data and instructions in a binary code that uses only ones and zeros. This simplified computer design. Thus computers use two conditions, high voltage, and low voltage, to translate the symbols by which we communicate into unique combinations of electrical pulses. Wfe refer to these combinations as codes.
Neumann's stored program computer as well as other machines of that time were made possible by the invention of the vacuum tube that could control and amplify electronic signals. Early computers, using vacuum tubes, could perform computations in thousandths of seconds, called milliseconds, instead of seconds required by mechanical devices.
9. Просмотрите текст еще раз и ответьте на вопросы, используя информацию текста.
1. When was the first analog computer built? 2. Where and how was that computer used? 3. When did the first digital computers appear? 4. Who was the inventor of the first digital computer? 5. What could that device do? 6. What is ENIAC? Decode the word. 7. What was J.Neumann's contribution into the development of computers? 8. What were the advantages of EDVAC in comparison with ENIAC? 9, What does binary coda
Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 36
mean? 10. Due to what invention could the first digital computers be built?
10. Найдите в тексте 2 английские эквиваленты следующих
Цифровые компьютеры; технические усовершенствования; совершенствование компьютеров; ответственный за изобретение; математические задачи; электронные трубки; важное достижение; запоминающее устройство; значительный вклад; двоичный код; высокое напряжение; низкое напряжение; электрические импульсы; тысячная доля секунды.
Происходить; завершать; вычислять; хранить команды внутри компьютера; запоминать информацию; запоминать команды; содействовать; использовать единицу и ноль; упрощать дизайн; усиливать сигналы; выполнять вычисления.
11. Составьте пары близких по значению слов из перечня,
Verbs: to name, to complete, to calculate, to develop, to keep, to interprete, to communicate, to fulfill, to apply, to translate, to improve, to build, to call, to store, to communicate, to figure out, to perform, to use, to finish, to construct, to connect.
Nouns: speed, aim, storage, information, machine, significance, computation, data, device, rate, calculation, purpose, memory, importance.
12. Заполните пропуски необходимыми словами.
1. The first digital computer could f< yV' a lot of mathematical problems at a fast Г '-'■ 2. Vannevar Bush built the firsts/'-7 '-; computer in 1930. 3. Babbage's analytical engine was designed to c '' ^data. 4. J.von Neumann invented a machine that was able to.' not only data but also . _______
5. Neumann_____ the idea of storing data in a ^____ .
6. Computers use two conditions for- symbols. 7. The
invention of_________ made computers possible to control
and_____ electronic signals. 8. Due to_________ comput
37 Unit 3. History of Computers
13. Переведите предложения или словосочетания, содер
А. Инфинитив в функции обстоятельства
1. Computers were designed to perform thousands of computations per second. 2. To make computers more reliable transistors were used. 3. They were applied to reduce computational time. 4. To integrate large numbers of circuit elements into a small chip, transistors should be reduced in size. 5. To use integrated circuit technology new computers were built. 6. Analytical engine was invented to store data.
Б. Инфинитив в функции определения
The problem to be solved; the work to be finished; the cards to be punched; calculations to be performed; the machine to be shown at the exhibition; the device to be provided with the necessary facts; computers to be used for data processing; efforts to increase reliability; electronics to connect systems and subsystems; the speed of response to depend on the size of transistor; computers to perform thousands of calculations per second; vacuum tubes to control and amplify electric signals; these are circuits to use a large number of transistors; operations to be performed.
14. Выполните письменноперевод текста 3 повариантам.
ТезЛЗ. SOME FIRST COMPUTER MODELS
1. Babbage's AnalyticalEngine
In 1832, an English inventor and mathematician Charles Babbage was commissioned by the British government to develop a system for calculating the rise and fall of the tides.
Babbage designed a device and called it an analytical engine. It was the first programmable computer, complete with punched cards for data input. Babbage gave the engine the ability to perform different types of mathematical operations. The machine was not confined to simple addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division. It had its own "memory", due to which the machine could use different combinations and sequences of operations to suit the purposes of the operator.
The machine of his dream was never realized in his life. Yet Babbage's idea didn't die with him. Other scientists made at-
Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 38
tempts to build mechanical, general-purpose, stored-program computers throughout the next century. In 1941 a relay computer was built in Germany by Conrad Zuse. It was a major step toward the realization of Babbage's dream.
2. The Mark I Computer (1937-1944)
In 1944 in the United States, International Business Machines (IBM) built a machine in cooperation with scientists working at Harvard University under the direction of Prof. Aik-en. The machine, called Mark I Automatic Sequence-Controlled Calculator, was built to perform calculations for the Manhattan Project, which led to the development of atomic bomb. It was the largest electromechanical calculator ever built. It used over 3000 electrically actuated switches to control its operations. Although its operations were not controlled electronically, Aiken's machine is often classified as a computer because its instructions, which were entered by means of a punched paper tape, could be altered. The computer could create ballistic tables used by naval artillery.
The relay computer had its problems. Since relays are electromechanical devices, the switching contacts operate by means of electromagnets and springs. They are slow, very noisy and consume a lot of power.
3. The ABC (1939-1942)
The work on introducing electronics into the design of computers was going on.
The gadget that was the basis for the first computer revolution was the vacuum tube, an electronic device invented early in the twentieth century. The vacuum tube was ideal for use in computers. It had no mechanical moving parts. It switched flows of electrons off and on at rates far faster than possible with any mechanical device. It was relatively reliable, and operated hundreds of hours before failure. The first vacuum tube computer was built at Iowa University at about the same time as the Mark I. The computer, capable to perform thousands of related computations, was called ABC, the Atanasoff-Berry Computer, after Dr.John Atanasoff, a professor of physics and his assistant, Clifford Berry. It used 45 vacuum tubes for internal logic and capacitors for storage. From the ABC a number of vacuum-tube digital computers developed.
39 Unit 3. History of Computers
Soon the British developed a computer with vacuum tubes and used it to decode German messages.
15. Поменяйтесь вариантами, прочтите текст и выразите
16. Прочтите текст 4 и передайте кратко его содержание
Text 4, FOUR GENERATIONS OF COMPUTERS
The first vacuum tubes computers are referred to as first generation computers, and the approximate period of their use was from 1950 to 1959. UNIVAC 1 (UNF&rsal Automatic Computer) is an example of these computers which could perform thousands of calculations per second. Those devices were not only bulky, they were also unreliable. The thousands of vacuum tubes emitted large amounts of heat and burned out frequently.
The transistor, a smaller and more reliable successor to the vacuum tube, was invented in 1948. So-called second generation computers, which used large numbers of transistors were able to reduce computational time from milliseconds to microseconds, or millionths of seconds. Second-generation computers were smaller, faster and more reliable than first-generation computers.
Advances in electronics technology continued, and microelectronics made it possible to reduce the size of transistors and integrate large numbers of circuit elements into very small chips of silicon. The computers that were designed to use integrated circuit technology were called third generation computers, and the approximate time span of these machines was from 1960 to 1979. They could perform many data processing operations in nanoseconds, which are billionths of seconds.
Fourth generation computers have now arrived, and the integrated circuits that are being developed have been greatly reduced in size. This is due to microminiaturization, which means that the circuits are much smaller than before; as many as 100 tiny circuits are placed now on a single chip. A chip is a square or rectangular piece of silicon, usually from 1/10 to 1/4 inch, upon which several layers of an integrated circuit are etched or
Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 40
imprinted, after which the circuit is encapsulated in plastic or metal.
Дата добавления: 2015-02-10; просмотров: 10; Нарушение авторских прав