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Macr; Writing a Summary

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A summary is a brief version of a larger reading. A summary is not a rewrite of the original text. To write a summary, use your own words to express briefly the main idea and relevant details of the text you have read. If you quote from the original text, use quotation marks. Your purpose in writing the summary is to give the basic ideas of the original reading. In writing the summary, let your reader know the text that you are summarizing. Identify the title, author and source of the text.


A good summary must have the following qualities:


1. It must be brief: The summary should be approximately ¼-th the length of the original text (about 150-200 words).  
2. It must contain: The central idea or main points of the text, the major supporting point and an indication of the relationship between the points.  
3. It must be accurate:   The summary should not change the main points of the original text.  
4. It must be objective: Do not include your own opinion, judgements, or interpretation of the content of the original text.  
5. It must be paraphrased: Do not copy phrases or sentences from the original. You must restate the ideas of the original using your own words, phrases, and sentence structures, concentrating on the main points.



§ Read with who, what, when, where, why and how questions in mind.

§ Do not rewrite the original piece.

§ Keep your summary short.

§ Use your own wording.

§ Refer to the central and main ideas of the original piece.

§ Do not put in your opinion of the issue or topic discussed in the original piece.



- Article (book, essay, paper) is about, is concerned with, deals with, concerns, is devoted to.

- Author is neutral: comments, describes, explains, illustrates, points out, reports, says, thinks, writes.

- Author infers or suggests: analyzes, concludes, finds, predicts, proposes, reveals, shows, suggests.

- Author argues: claims, defends, disagrees, insists, maintains.

- Author agrees: admits, agrees, concurs, grants.

EXERCISE 20. Study the definitions of the crimes given below and do EXERCISE 21.


1. FIRST DEGREE MURDER - unlawful killing of another human being with malice aforethought and with premeditation and deliberation.


2. SECOND DEGREE MURDER - unlawful killing of another human being with malice aforethought but without premeditation and deliberation.


3. VOLUNTARY MANSLAUGHTER - intentional killing committed under extenuating circumstances that mitigate the killing in the heat of passion after being provoked


4. INVOLUNTARY MANSLAUGHTER - unintentional killing, without malice aforethought, that is neither excused nor justified.


5. BATTERY - unlawful touching of another with intent to cause injury.


6. ROBBERY - wrongful taking and carrying away of personal property from a person by violence or intimidation.


7. BURGLARY - breaking and entering of a dwelling house of another in the nighttime with the intent to commit a felony.


8. LARCENY - taking and carrying away the personal property of another with the intent to steal the property.


9. ASSAULT - intentional placing of another in fear of receiving an immediate battery.


10. RAPE - unlawful sexual intercourse with a female without her consent.


EXERCISE 21. Working in small groups read the examples and decide what crimes have been committed. Express your opinions in class. Be prepared to explain your choices.

- A woman buys some poison and pours it into a cup of coffee her husband is drinking, intending to kill him. The motive is to get the insurance benefits of the victim.


- A man intending to harm his friend after a disagreement in bar hits his friend in the head with a baseball bat, and the victim dies as a result of the injury.


- A husband coming home early from work finds his wife in bed with another man. The husband goes into a rage and shoots and kills both lovers with a gun he keeps by his bedside.


- After becoming drunk, a woman drives a car at high speed down a crowded street and kills a pedestrian.


- A man seeing a stranger sitting in his favorite seat in the cafeteria goes up to that person and pushes him out of the seat.

- A student aims an unloaded gun at her professor who believes the gun is loaded. She says she is going to shoot.

- After a party, a man offers to drive a young female acquaintance home. He takes her to wooded area and, despite her protests, forces her to have sexual relations with him.


- A man armed with a loaded gun approaches another man on a deserted street and demands his wallet.


- Intending to steal some jewelry and silver, a young man breaks a window and enters another’s house at 10 p.m.


- While a woman is shopping, she sees a diamond ring displayed at the jewelry counter. When no one is looking, the woman takes the ring and walks out of the store.


EXERCISE 22. Complete the table according to the given example. Use dictionary if necessary.

Crime Criminal Verb Definition  
murder murderer murder    
arson   arsonist    
blackmail     demanding money from a person about whom they have secret information

EXERCISE 23. Working in small groups, read the story and do the task given below. Discuss your opinions in class.

Nelson, Bert, and Nicholas are all freshmen in a dormitory at Lincoln College. One night, the whole dorm decides to have a beer bash. Bert announces that he will not participate because he thinks social drinking is disgusting. Nelson and Nicholas respond: “If you are going to be a killjoy all year, we don’t want you as a roommate.” Bert replies, “OK, you guys,” and drinks five large beers. He begins to shout and curse, seizes a chair and begins to wave it wildly around his head, striking three students who happen to be in his way.


Based on these facts, if Bert is prosecuted for battery, it is most likely that:

A. Bert is guilty because he voluntary drank the beer which led to his violent outburst.

B. Bert is guilty because he deliberately struck three students.

C. Bert is not guilty if he no longer realized that hitting people was wrong.

ä Jokes and Puns


A man walking along the beach one day finds a bottle. He rubs it and, sure enough, out popped a genie. “I will grant you three wishes, said the genie. “But there is a catch.” “What a catch?” the man asked. The genie replied, “Every time you make a wish, every lawyer in the world will receive double the wish you were granted.” “Well, I can live with that! No problem!” replied the man.” What is your first wish?” asked the genie. “Well, I have always wanted a Ferrari!” POOF! A Ferrari appeared in front of the man. “Now every lawyer in the world has TWO Ferraris, said the genie. “Next wish?” “I’d love a million dollars,” replied the man. POOF! One million dollars appeared at his feet. “Now every lawyer in the world has TWO million dollars,” said the genie. “Well, that’s okay, as long as I’ve got my million,” replied the man. “What is your third and final wish?” The man thought long and hard, and finally said, “Well, you know, I’ve always wanted to donate a kidney!”


grant – жаловать, даровать

wish - желание

donate –дарить, жертвовать

kidney – почка



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