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Pernicious anaemia

 

Jordi Pons, the medical student from Barcelona, has made some language notes in his textbook.Pernicious anaemia (PA) is a condition in which there is atrophy of the gastric mucosa with consequent failure of intrinsic factor production and vitamin B malabsorption. The onset is insidious, with progressively increasing symptoms of anaemia. Patients are sometimes said to have a lemon-yellow colour owing to a combination of pallor and mild jaundice caused by excessive breakdown of haemoglobin because of ineffective red cell production in the bone marrow. A red sore tongue (glossitis) is sometimes present. Patients present with symmetricalparaesthesiae in the fingers and toes, early loss of vibration sense, and progressive weakness and ataxia. The spleen may be palpable.

 

onset = beginning

insidious = slowly developing

pallor = lack of colour

mild = slight

jaundice = bilirubinaemia

breakdown = division into smaller parts

bone marrow = soft tissue in the cavity of bones

symmetrical = each side the same

vibration sense = ability to feel vibrations

progressive = continuing to develop

palpable = can be felt with the hand

 

Exercises:

 

1.Find words in the box with opposite meanings. Look at B and C to help you.

 

adequate unlikely mild common insidious for against severe rare sudden inadequate likely
bone differential insidious iron pernicious progressively vibration   diagnosis sense onset marrow increasing deficiency anaemia

2.Make word combinations using a word from each box. Look at B and C to help you.

 

 

3.Complete the sentences. Look at A, B and C to help you.

1. A 39-year-old man presented with a history of ……………………. abdominal distention over a period of six months.

2. Blindness may be caused by vitamin A ………………… .

3. The bleeding and purpura are caused by abnormal ………………. function.

4. The white cell count is normal so we can ……………… acute leukaemia.

5. The yellow colour of her skin and conjunctivae is probably due to …………………. .

6. There was a …………….. mass in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen.

7. Treatment is aimed at restoring fluid balance with ……………………. intravenous fluids.



8. The anaemia may be due to increased red cell …………………. .

 

4.Complete the conversation. Look at C to help you.

 

Professor: What is against the diagnosis of pernicious anaemia on physical examination?

Student: The problem started quite suddenly. So it didn't have the typical (1) ……………..…………………….. .He doesn't have any skin (2) …………….……. and he doesn't have (3) …….………….. paraesthesiae, or absent (4) ……………………. sense, and I couldn't feel his spleen.

Professor: What about his tongue?

Student: His tongue was normal and not inflamed or (5) ……………… .


platelet [ˊpleıtlıt] кровяная пластинка

anaemia[ә'nı:mjә]

pernicious [pә:ˊnıʃәs] злокачественный

mucosa– слизистая оболочка

ataxia [ә'tæksıә] атаксия, неспособность к координации мышц

distension – растяжение, процесс/ состояние расширения или вздутия

purpura - пyрпура (кровоизлияние в кожу)

Unit 8 Bones

Bones

 

Some common English names for bones:

 

English name Anatomical name Russian name
skull cranium /`kreınjǝm/ череп
jaw bone mandible /`mændıbl/ нижняя челюсть
spine vertebral column позвоночник
breastbone sternum /`stǝ:nǝm/ грудина
rib costa ребро
collarbone clavicle /`klævıkl/ ключица
shoulder blade scapula /`skæpjulǝ/ лопатка
thigh bone femur /`fɪ:mǝ/ бедро
knee cap patella коленная чашечка
shinbone tibia /`tıbıǝ/ fibula /`fɪbjulǝ/ большеберцовая кость малоберцовая кость

 



 

 

Fractures

 

A fracture is a break in a bone. Some of different types of fracture:

 

 

greenstick displaced comminuted impacted open(compound)

 

 

A pathological fractureis a fracture in a diseased bone. A fatigueor stress fractureis due to repeated minor trauma, for example long-distance marching or running.

Treatment of fractures

When the fragments of a broken bone heal and join together, they unite. Union may be promoted, or helped, by reducing the fracture — replacing the fragments in their anatomical position if the are displaced. After reduction, excessive movement of the broken bone is prevented by fixation — either, for example a splint or a plaster of Paris cast, or internal, for example a pin or plate and screws. A displaced fracture which is not reduced may result in malunion — incomplete or incorrect union.

Note:The verb reduce has several meanings in medicine:

● to make smaller — I think we’d better reduce the dose of your tablets.

● (in surgery) to return to anatomical position — A hernia can normally be reduced by manipulation.

● (in chemistry) to remove oxygen or add hydrogen — Nitric acid is a reducing agent(восстановитель)

to reduceвправлять(вывих)

исправлять положение обломков кости

Exercises:

1. Label the diagram using words from the box. Look at A to help you.

 

 

breastbone collarbone jaw bone kneecap rib shinbone shoulder blade skull spine thigh bone

 

 

2. Match the types of fractures (1-5) with the description (a-e). Look at B to help you.

1. open

2. comminuted

3. displaced

4. greenstick

5. impacted

 

a There is a break in the skin.

b The bone is bent. It occurs mainly in children.

c The bone is broken into several pieces.

d The broken pieces are separated.

e The broken pieces are pushed together.

 

3.Complete the textbook extract. Look at C to help you.

(1)…………………….a fracture involves trying to return the bones to as near to their original position as possible. If a fracture is allowed to heal in a displaced position the fracture will (2)……………………but it may go on to (3)…………


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