АвтомобилиАстрономияБиологияГеографияДом и садДругие языкиДругоеИнформатикаИсторияКультураЛитератураЛогикаМатематикаМедицинаМеталлургияМеханикаОбразованиеОхрана трудаПедагогикаПолитикаПравоПсихологияРелигияРиторикаСоциологияСпортСтроительствоТехнологияТуризмФизикаФилософияФинансыХимияЧерчениеЭкологияЭкономикаЭлектроника
Most people living in towns consider it a usual thing that streets are lit at night. But street lights need a power supply (источник
энергии) therefore distant areas with no source of electricity remain in darkness until the sun comes up again.
With new appliances now offered by several British firms, many distant places could be lit with solar-powered street lights. It may seem strange that the lamps can use the power of the sun which shines by day when the lamps are needed at night, but they work by using energy accumulated during the day from a solar panel. The solar panel produces electricity which charges (заряжать) a battery. When the sun goes down, the battery power is then used for lighting. Each lamp has its own panel so the system can be used for one individual light or a number of them.
In the south of Saudi Arabia a motorway tunnel miles from any power supply is lit day and night by solar-powered devices. The solar panels provide power during the day and charge batteries which accumulate enough power to light the tunnel at night. The generation of electricity by batteries is still expensive but the advantage of sun-powered lamps is that they can bring light to areas distant from any other power supply.
There is one more advantage of solar power: not only it is unlimited, but also its use does not pollute the environment. That is why it is very important to develop devices which make it possible to transform solar power into mechanical or electric forms of power.
Прочитайте текст. Найдите информацию о наиболее перспективных источниках энергии и об основных отличиях нетрадиционных источников энергии от традиционных. Изложите основное содержание текста по-английски.
Non-traditional Renewable Sources of Energy
It is known that much is being done in the world today for the development of non-traditional sources of energy. Without them the Earth cannot support its present population of 5 billion people and probably 8 billion people in the 21st century.
Now we are using traditional power sources, that is, oil, natural gas, coal and water power with the consumption of more than 50 billion barrels per year. It is evident that these sources are not unlimited.
That is why it is so important to use such renewable sources of energy as the sun, wind, geothermal energy and others. Research is being carried out in these fields.
One of the most promising (перспективный) research is the development of power stations with direct transformation of solar energy into electricity on the basis of photo-effect. It was Russia that was the first in the world to develop and test a photoelectric battery of 32,000 volts and effective area of only 0.5 sq.m., which made it possible to concentrate solar radiation. This idea is now being intensively developed in many countries.
However, the efficiency of a solar power station is considerably reduced because of the limited time of its work during the year. But it is possible to improve the efficiency of solar power stations by developing different combinations of solar power stations and traditional ones — thermal, atomic and hydraulic. Today some engineers are working at the problem of developing electric power stations with the use of a thermal-chemical cycle. It will operate on products of the transformation of solar energy, whereas the «solar» chemical reactor uses C02 and water steam of the thermal power station. The result is that we have a closed cycle.
In Kamchatka there are geothermal power stations operating on hot water-steam mixture from the depths of about a kilometre. In some projects water will be heated by the warmth of mountains at a depth of four—five km.
It is planned that plants working on the energy of the solar heat provided by the sun will be built on a larger scale.
That different wind energy plants are being developed is also well-known. These energy plants can be small (of several kilowatts) and large powerful systems.
It is important that all these advances in developing new sources of energy and improving the old ones help to solve the energy problem as a whole and they do not have negative effects on the environment.
Упражнение 1. А.Прочитайте следующие словосочетания из текста ЗА и постарайтесь догадаться о значении выделенных слов и словосочетаний.
1. such as lighting
2. applications are longstanding
3. in the 19th century workshops
4. a rangeof appliances
5. devices are basedon
Дата добавления: 2014-11-13; просмотров: 40; Нарушение авторских прав