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To be read after Lesson 8




Читайте также:
  1. Ex.1. Complete the examples with the key words from this lesson.
  2. Exercise 12 Complete the sentences using the verbs in brackets in the Past Perfect. You went back to your hometown after many years and you found that many things were different.
  3. II. Find in the text of the lesson terminological word-combinations consisting of two or more components. Translate them into Ukrainian.
  4. III. Make dialogues using words, word-combinations and expressions from this lesson. Work in pairs.
  5. LESSON 1
  6. Lesson 1
  7. Lesson 1. BREAKING THE ICE
  8. LESSON 10
  9. LESSON 12
  10. Lesson 13. Means of Travelling

The Driving Lesson

Miss Green: Good afternoon. My name is Miss Green and I'm your driving instructor. Is this your first lesson?

Simon: It is my first lesson at this driving school.

M. G.: Oh, you've been to another one?

S.: Yes. The Greenwich school of driving. But I stopped

going there.

M. G.: Why? Weren't the lessons good enough?

S.: They were good but my instructor left.

M. G.: Really? Well, let's see what you can do. I want you to

drive down this road and turn left at the end.

S.: Yes, all right.

M. G.: You drive very well! I'm sure you'll pass your test. All

my pupils pass their tests. Oh, look out! That lorry!

S.: You said turn left at the end.

M. G.: When you want to turn a corner, slow down and look

first. You nearly hit that lorry. Please, be careful. Now turn right at the traffic lights... Right, not left!


S.: Sorry it was too late. I've turned left now.

M. G.: Didn't you see the No Entry sign? This is a one-way

street.
S.: Why are those drivers shouting?

M. G.: Because you're driving the wrong way down a one-way

street. Stop the car, please, and turn it round.
S.: I'm not very good at that.

M. G.: Mind that red car!

S.: Madman! He nearly hit me!

M. G.: He was right and you were wrong. Why didn't you

wait? Now you are blocking the road. You want re­verse gear. Turn the wheel... more ... more ... Not too

fast! Oh, what have you done now?
S.: It is all right. I went into the lamp-post but it is still

standing. I didn't knock it down.
M.G.: Oh, but look at the back of the car.

S.: Sorry, but you said «reverse».

M.G.: I didn't say «drive into the lamp-post». Well, you've

turned the car round now, so drive back to the traffic

lights and go straight across.
S.: Are we going to the park?

M.G.: The roads are quiter near the park. Oh, not too fast!

S.: The lights are green.

M.G.: Slow down! The lights are changing!

S.: I can't slow down. There! We are across.

M.G.: The lights were red!

S.: It's all right. There were no policemen.

M.G.: I know why your last instructor left. He wanted to stay

alive.
S.: That's not a very nice thing to say. And it's not true.

He left because he wasn't very well.
M.G.: Stop the car, please. Oh, gently!



S.: Sorry. Did you hit your head on the roof?

M.G.: No. Luckily I was wearing the seat belt. Now I want

you to practise driving backwards. Reverse the park

gates. Look first, than reverse in.
S.: Right.

M.G.: Oh, you've hit the gate!... Now you are driving on the

grass!
S.: I'm going backwards down the hill and I can't stop!

Help me!
M.G.: Use the brakes! Don't drive into the lake!


S.: Too late.

M.G.: Look what you've done. You reversed into a lamp

post. You hit the park gate. Now you've driven into the lake. Oh, why didn't you stay with the other driv­ing school?

S.: They had no more cars left.

Heavy-Lift Dirigible

Unlike other new dirigible projects the giant CargoLifter CL 160 (Germany) is aimed at heavy-lift cargo applications, not at tourism or advertising. It will be the beginning of a new era in freight transport.

The 260-meter-long, 65-meter-diameter semi-rigid airship will be capable of transporting 160 ton loads-equivalent to 36 standard 40-ft containers — to out-of-the-way (remote) construction sites 10,000 km away. With a cruise speed of just 80-120 km/hr the CL 160 would not get the load to its destination nearby as fast as a heavier-than-air craft such as Antonov An-124, but it would also not require the landing facilities needed for the unusually large air­craft.



Moored (причаливать) above the delivery site, the airship will lower loads using an onboard crane without actually having to touch down. A crew of five, including navigator and two cargo-masters (высококвалифицированные рабочие) would man the ship.

In fact, the CargoLifter project was born of a logistics need ex­pressed by manufacturers of electric generators, turbines and other outsized (i.e., larger than the usual size) machinery.

Rolls-Royce-Turbomeca turboshaft engines are to be used for maneuvering the big airship, cruise being provided by diesel power-plants.

What Is GPS?

The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite-based navi­gation system made up of a network of 24 satellites. GPS was origi­nally intended for military applications, but now the systems is available for civilian use. GPS works in any weather conditions, anywhere in the world, 24 hours a day.

GPS satellites circle the earth twice a day in a very precise orbit and transmit signal information to Earth. GPS receivers take this information and use triangulation to calculate the user's exact lo­cation. Essentially, the GPS receiver compares the time a signal


was transmitted by a satellite with the time it was received. The time difference tells the GPS receiver how far away the satellite is. Now, with distance measurements from a few more satellites, the receiver can determine the user's position and display it on the unit's electronic map.



A GPS receiver must be locked on to the signal of at least three satellites to calculate a 2D position (latitude and longitude) and track (прослеживать) movement. With four or more satellites in view, the receiver can determine the user's 3D position (latitude, longitude and altitude). Once the user's position has been deter­mined, the GPS unit can calculate other information, such as speed, bearing (пеленг), track, trip distance, distance to destina­tion, sunrise and sunset time and more.

Today's GPS receivers are extremely accurate within an aver­age of three to five meters thanks to their parallel multi-channel design.

The 24 satellites that make up the GPS space segment are orbit­ing the earth about 12,000 miles above us. They are constantly moving, making two complete orbits in less than 24 hours. These satellites are travelling at speeds of roughly 7,000 miles an hour.

GPS satellites are powered by solar energy. They have backup batteries onboard to keep them running in the event of a solar eclipse (затмение), when there's no solar power. Small rocket boosters on each satellite keep them flying in the correct path.

Here are some other interesting facts about the GPS satellites:

1. The first GPS satellite was launched in 1978.

2. A full constellation (созвездие) of 24 satellites was achieved in 1994.

3. Each satellite is built to last about 10 years. Replacements are constantly being built and launched into orbit.

4. A GPS satellite weighs approximately 2,000 pounds and is about 17 feet across with the solar panels extended.

5. Transmitter power is only 50 watts or less.

GPS satellites transmit two low power radio signals. The signals travel by line of sight, meaning they will pass through clouds, glass and plastic but will not go through most solid objects such as build­ings and mountains.

A GPS signal contains three different bits of information — a pseudorandom code, ephemeris data and almanac data.

Some factors that can degrade the GPS signal and thus affect accuracy include the following:

1. The satellite signal slows as it passes through the atmosphere.


2. The GPS signal is reflected off objects such as tall buildings or large rock surfaces before it reaches the receiver. This increases the travel time of the signal, thereby causing errors.

3. A receiver's built-in clock is not as accurate as the atomic clocks onboard the GPS satellites. Therefore, it may have very slight timing errors.

4. The more satellites a GPS receiver can «see,» the better the accuracy. Buildings, terrain, electronic interference, or sometimes even dense foliage (листва) can block signal reception, causing po­sition errors or possibly no position reading at all. GPS units typi­cally will not work indoors, underwater or underground.


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