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ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY. 1. come vi (esp. up to, down to) to reach, e

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1. come vi (esp. up to, down to) to reach, e. g. The water came (up) to my neck.

come about to happen, e, g. I'll never understand how it came about that you were an hour late on such a short journey.

come along (on) to advance, to improve, e. g. Mother's coming along nicely, thank you.

come by to obtain, e. g. Jobs were hard to come by with somany people out of work.

come down to lose position, respect or social rank, e. g. John came down in my opinion after his bad behaviour at the dance.

come in to become fashionable, e. g. When did the short skirt first come in?

come off 1) to cease being joined to smth, e. g. I tried to pick up the bucket, but the handle came off in my hand. 2) (in­formal) to succeed, e. g. It was a bold idea, but it is still came off.

come on (informal) to start, e. g. 1 can feel a cold coming on.

come out to become clear or known, e. g. The truth came out at the inquiry.

come to to regain consciousness, e. g. The girl faulted, but she came to when we threw drops of water on her face.


2. objective a not influenced by personal feelings; fair, e. g. The writer tried to be as objective as possible in evaluating his latest work.


objective n (C) something which you plan to do or achieve, e. g. His main/primary objective now is simply to stay in power.

object n 1) a material thing, e. g. What is that dark object over there? 2) smth or smb that is the focus of feeling, thought, or action, as an object of pity, admiration, ridicule, delight, cu­riosity, fear, etc., e. g. She was the object of his love. 3) purpose; aim. e. g. The object of his visit was not clear.

object vi to be against smth or someone, e. g Iobject to the whole thing on principle.

objection n a statement or feeling of dislike, disapproval, or opposition, e. g. Have you any objection to his coming?


3. ground n 1) (C) a piece of land for a special use; a football ground; picnic grounds, a playground, e. g. The school grounds were planted with trees and flowers. 2) a reason,

e. g. He left on the grounds of ill-health.

to cover much/a lot of ground 1) to travel a certain distance; 2) to deal with many different subjects, e. g. I'lltry to cover all the ground in a short speech of half an hour.

to suit someone down to the ground (informal) to be just what one wants or likes, e. g. This house will suit us down to the ground.

groundless a (of feelings, ideas) without base or good reason

well-grounded a based on fact


4. thing n 1) (C)any material object, e. g. What's that thing you've got on your head? 2) (C) a piece of clothing, e. g. I've not got a thing'to wear. 3) (C) that which is not material, e. g. What a nasty thing to say to your sister! 4) (C) a subject, matter, e. g. There's one more thing I wanted to say. 5) (C) a person or animal regarded as an object of pity, affection, or contempt, e. g. Your daughter's such a sweet little thing. You stupid thing! 6) (C) happening, event, e. g. A funny thing hap­pened yesterday. 7) pl possessions, belongings, e. g. Have you packed your things for the journey? 8) pl the general state of affairs, e. g. Things are getting worse and worse.

(not) quite the thing (informal) what is considered socially correct, .fashionable, e. g. It's not quite the thing to wear an open-necked shirt to a formal evening dinner.

the thing is the most important point is, e. g. The thing is can we get there in time?


have a thing about(informal) — a peculiar attitude or feel­ing toward smth, e. g. She has a thing about cats.


5. opposev to be or act against, e. g. His father did not op­pose his plan to study medicine.

to be opposed to,e. g. He is opposed to sex education in schools.

oppositen a person or thing that is as different as possible, e. g. Black and white are opposites.

oppositea 1) totally different; 2) across from where you are, e. g. He sits opposite.

oppositionn 1) (U) action against, e. g. His opposition to the plan surprised his friends. 2) the political parties opposed to the government.


6. initialn, usu. pl first letters of a person's name.

initiala coming at the beginning, as the initial advantage, attempt, stage, step, symptoms, etc.,.e. g. His initial response to the question was "no".

initiativen 1) (С) the first step in an undertaking (esp. in the phr. io take the initiative),

e. g. Jean took the initiative at the party by introducing herself to the people she didn't know. 2) (U) the ability to do things before others; enterprise, e. g. Did you do this on your own initiative?


7. attentionn 1) (U) active focusing of the mind, (oft. in the phr. to pay attention to, to attract/to draw smb's attention to), e. g. Do not let your attention wander. 2) (U) thoughtful consid­eration, care, e. g. A good mother gives equal attention to each of her children.

attendvt/i 1) to give one's attention, e. g. Are you attend­ing to what is being said? 2) to be present at, e. g. Themeeting was well attended. 3) to look after, e. g. I have a good doctor at­tending me.

attentivea 1) paying attention; 2) courteous, considerate; as an attentive host.

Ant. inattentive


8. reassurevt to restore confidence or courage, e. g. The doctor-reassured the sick man (about his health).

reassurancen (C; U), e. g. She won't believe it in spite of all our reassurance.


assurevt 1). to promise; try to persuade, e. g. He assured us of his ability to work. 2) to make certain, e. g. Before going to bed she assured herself that the door was locked.

assureda also self-assured,self-possessed, confident, as an assured manner.

assurancen — promise, statement made to give confidence


9. yieldvt 1) to give, produce, bear, e. g. Thattree yields plenty of fruit 2) to give up control (of), e. g. We did not yield (up) our position to the enemy.

Syn. surrender, give up

yieldn that which is produced, e. g. The tree gave a high yield this year.

yieldinga 1) likely to agree with or give in to others, e. g. He has a yielding character and will soon change his mind. 2) tend­ing to give way esp. under pressure, as yielding materials.


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