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Exercise 6. Talk about your home town. Use the following dialogue as a model.

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  1. Additional Exercise
  2. Answer the following questions with one word or phrase.
  3. B Write the correct details about Raphael Gordon and his family. Compare your answers with a partner.
  4. B. Complete the following sentences with the Past Simple Tense of the verbs of the previous exercise.
  5. C./ translate the following sentences; mind the ways of rendering the geographical names.
  6. Choose between the infinitive and the gerund as the object to an adjective in the following sentences
  7. Complete the dialogues using the Present Continuous forms of the verbs in brackets.
  8. Complete the following using the Infinitive
  9. Consider the following examples
  10. Dialogue

A.: Youre from Wales, arent you?

D.: Yes, thats right. I come from Swansea actually.

A.: Ah, Swansea! Ive never been there. Its a port, isnt it?

D.: Oh yes - big docks, steel works and a lot of heavy industry round about. But its funny, just outside the town theres really beautiful country. Its extremely beautiful along the coast - the Gower Peninsular. No industry or nothing - just like it was a hundred years ago.

A.: Sounds great. And how large is Swansea?

D.: Oh, its a big city. You mustnt think that all the people in Wales live in villages. We have cities too!

A.: Yes, I suppose so.

 

Exercise 7. Comment on the following proverbs and sayings. (Explain their meaning, give their Russian equivalents.)

East or West, home is best.

There is no place like home.

So many countries, so many customs.

When at Rome, do as the Romans do.

 

Exercise 8. Role play. A group of guides suggests possible sightseeing routes about London to their office director commenting on the peculiarities of different historical places. Each one speaks in favour of his/her suggestion trying to convince both the director and the guides that the route is the best. In the end the participants of the talk choose the most appropriate route.

 

UNIT V.

 

Some Useful Hints for Russians.

 

Read and translate the text.

Text A.

 

How to Keep the English Happy.

 

All countries have unwritten but powerful rules of social behaviour, which can only be interpreted by other natives. The efforts of foreigners to explain to other foreigners become ridiculous: Englishmen upon being introduced, shake hands and say, How do you do?

Do they? Sometimes they do. Its like being told, In Russia at the beginning of the meal, the host pours out some vodka and everybody has to drink it in one gulp. Life is not as rigid as ceremonious or as repetitious as that.

So, no rules! Remember that we know that foreigners are going to be unfamiliar with our ways, and so long as they are obviously friendly and polite from the heart, it does not matter if they seem to us to behave slightly strangely. You will be miserable if you keep asking yourself, Have I done this right or that right? And dont feel that you have to apologize in case you have done something wrong. Apologies will distress your English friends and acquaintances. But dont forget to thank them. And they will always appreciate a card or note from your home when you return.



In the last thirty years we have become much more informal than your textbooks suggest. Many of the rituals they describe no longer exist. But our informality conceals a pattern, an expectation of behaviour that can suddenly rise up strongly within us. For example, a group of English people, casual, friendly and easy-going, is making arrangements for the next day. They will have a much stronger expectation of punctuality than you may realize. Asked to arrive at ten oclock, the English will arrive at ten oclock, unless they are invited to a party or dinner, when they will carefully arrive a few minutes but not twenty minutes later. (Chronically unpunctual Englishmen exist, but try not to imitate them.)

Then, life in the country is more organized, people are much more tired by work than you may realize. Busy people have complex timetables. If you are invited for a meeting from half past ten to eleven, expect to leave at eleven unless your host presses you to stay. Its wiser not to launch into another long story as the Englishman opposite shuffles his papers or begins to wriggle in his chair.



Most English people get up and go to bed earlier than you do. So, expect to be up and around and working by about nine and nobody will be surprised if you are washing yourself around seven a.m. On the other hand, dont try to telephone acquaintances after 10 p.m. unless you know them well. Some people dont mind being phoned at midnight, but they are very rare.

The English, though you will find them friendly, do not rush to invite people to their homes a great pity, but a fact. However, a minority is extremely hospitable and you may find yourself invited to someones home for an evening or at midday or indeed for afternoon tea. With such people there should be no problems. They will want to make you feel comfortable, they will enjoy showing you all sorts of things with which you may be perfectly well acquainted, and they will display astonishing ignorance about your own home life. My advice is: Ask, if you dont know what to do next, whenever you dont understand something which seems important. People enjoy explaining. And if you are asked questions, try to explain in answer. People enjoy trying to understand. But dont feel that a simple question needs a ten-minute answer. Stop before you have completed your story, so that your friend can ask further questions. First, you may find that they have completely misunderstood you, and you need to start again. Secondly, English culture unlike Russian culture, doesnt normally include monologues.

Homes and individuals differ so much that it is impossible to generalize about what you will find. But there is an underlying pattern to English hospitality, which differs from the Russian pattern. Let us suppose you have been invited out for the evening. You will be given a meal but it will not be waiting for you as soon as you arrive. First, there is a period of anticipation, when people sit around, talking, getting to know each other, and sipping a preparatory drink. Dont expect much to drink at this stage: you may be offered a second drink but very rarely more. This is a period when the English often seem to talk about nothing. Call people by the names by which they are introduced to you. And you will have already discovered that since we do not use patronymics you will have to reconcile yourself to the use of your first name only.

Meals will certainly have two courses and if the occasion is fairly formal, quite probably three courses: a first course/starter which will be light and probably cold, or a soup; a main course which will have meat or fish and vegetables, and a sweet course a pudding or cheese or fruit. There will probably be bread around, but it is not eaten at such meals as often as with you, so by all means ask for a slice, but dont expect to eat half the loaf.

Our pattern of drinking is very different. You will already have some alcohol inside you. At a meal you will be offered either wine or beer. Whereas Russian vodka drinkers get the vodka into them at the beginning of the meal so that its delightful effects will last throughout the evening, English drinking is for the pleasure of tasting wine or beer with the food over a long period. Do not help yourself to wine or beer unless asked to do so.

After the meal (and by all means offer to help clear up, but accept your hosts word if they say, No, thank you) you may move to another room, to drink coffee or tea and continue talking. People may play music, get out books or photos, and show you round the house or just talk.

Dont feel that you have to leave immediately. This is a leisurely part of the evening when the English become most relaxed. You can more easily ask them about the things, which have really puzzled you. If you dont know when to leave, take your cue from other guests - though if they have to leave early, you may be asked to stay a bit longer. Otherwise, go by the atmosphere. If conversation is animated, stay. If your host shuffle, grow silent or fall asleep, take the hint! The English will never tell you to leave, but if these are people you dont know well, normally you will have to leave around 11 p.m.

 

Exercise 1.Give Russian equivalents of the following.

Acquaintances, behaviour, casual, to distress, ridiculous, easy-going, expectation, arrangement, timetable, ignorance, hospitable, to display, to generalize, anticipation , a first course / starter, a main course, a sweet course, delightful, to puzzle, hint, animated.

 

Exercise 2. Find the corresponding adjectives in the text.

Power, ceremony, repeat, friend, politeness, misery, silence, difference, familiarity, preparation, leisure, delight, strength, length, possibility, comfort.

Exercise 3. Make up 10 questions on the text.

 

Exercise 4. Give a summary of the text.

 

Exercise 5. Translate into English.

, . . , .

. 10 , 10, - .

. , , , . , , , , - : , ( ) - , . . , .

Exercise 6. Role play. The information given below contains different points of view of the American students on some aspects of social life in Great Britain. Read it and guess what they like or dislike about Britain. Imagine that you are American students who visited England. Discuss your likes and dislikes.

 

The British and the Americans speak the same language. But life in two nations can be very different.

 

The police. Theyre very friendly and they dont carry guns. Claude, Trenton.

The weather is awful. You dont seem to get any summer heat. Its winter all year round. Toni, San Francisco.

The tourists! The streets are so crowded. I think you should do something about them. And I cant stand the litter everywhere. Its a very dirty place. Jose, Washington.

Walking and sitting on the grass in the parks, especially on a hot summers day. Oh, and the green countryside. But why is the beer warm? Max, Houston.

Well, they certainly seem rather unfriendly. Nobody ever talk on the buses. But maybe we havent met any real English people yet. Eva, Niagara Falls.

Feeling safe when you walk the streets. Oh, and the polite drivers who stop at a street crossing if they see someone waiting there. Moon, Los Angeles.

Driving on the left. Its very confusing. I keep looking the wrong way. Paula, San Diego.

 

Read and translate.

Text B.

 

Any Problems?

 

(Mr. Green has invited the students at the Summer School to bring their language problems to him. He, his wife and the students are talking after supper.)

Mario: Weve all heard a lot of slang while weve been here. Should we learn it and use it?

Mr. Green: I dont advise you to use it. Its difficult to say whether you should learn its meaning. It depends on your aims in learning English. If you expect to talk to English people of all classes, then youll certainly hear a good deal of slang and you ought to learn the meanings of all slang words and expressions. If you want to listen to broadcasts in English and go to English talking films, youll find it useful to know something about slang. But if your chief aim is to read books on such subjects as medicine, economics or engineering, theres no need at all to study slang. It would be a waste of time.

Emil: Why do you advise us not to use slang even if we learn it?

Mr. Green: Because its too difficult. You could learn the meaning of slang words and expressions without much difficulty, perhaps, but youd almost certainly use them in the wrong way and to the wrong people. Theres schoolboys and schoolgirls slang. Theres Army slang and Air Force slang. Sailors have their own slang words and expressions. Its the easiest thing in the world to learn a bit of slang and then to make yourself look silly by using it to the wrong people.

Mrs. Green: Theres another good reason for not using slang. It very quickly goes out of date. Slangs always changing. You might learn a slang phrase that was in common use ten years ago. And if you used it today, youd be laughed at.

Mario: So its much safer not to use slang.

Mrs. Green : Very much safer.

Anne: Slang is dangerous, I know. But theres something else that worries me. How can I learn to talk English naturally? I dont want to talk like a book.

Mr. Green: I know what you mean. You sometimes use words that youve learnt from your reading. And then sometimes someone tells you not to use them when you are speaking.

Rosa: Yes, thats what happens to me. The other day I said, I fear its going to rain. Mrs. Green told me not to say fear. She told me to say, Im afraid its going to rain.

Mr. Green: Quite right, too. Fear, the verb, is not much used in speaking. Thats quite a difficult problem. You can learn a lot by reading modern English novels and plays. They must be modern, though. Theyll give you good examples of conversational English. But dont always use the words that are the nearest to the words of your own language.

Hans: Ive met a lot of Americans. Most of them say Do you have. I was taught to say Have you. Which is better?

Mr. Green: Thats another difficult question. Do you have is good American English in many sentences where English people would say /Have you. If an American asks you, Do you have any sisters or brothers?, its quite correct, but its American English. If you go to America, use American English if you wish. But in this country we say, Have you any brothers or sisters?, or, more probably, Have you got any brothers or sisters? Have you got is very common in spoken English and its quite good English. Its not at all slangy. Whos got another question?

Lucille: When I first began listening to the B.B.C. broadcasts to France, I couldnt understand Here is the news. I thought it ought to be Here are the news. Ive learnt that news is singular now, but I still find it difficult to understand why words like news, advice, information and furniture are never plural. They can be plural in French.

Mr. Green: You want to know how to recognize words of this kind, dont you? The only way I can think of is to keep your eyes and ears open. When you see or hear them, notice how they are used. If they re used with much you mustnt make them plural. Not much news, not much advice, not much information, thats the way to remember them. Not by themselves, but with not much. Or you could learn them as an item of news, a piece of advice, an interesting bit of information. Knowledge, machinery and poetry are other nouns that are never used in the plural.

Paul: And whats the difference between small and little? You crossed out little in something I wrote for you last week and put small instead.

Mr. Green: Yes, I remember, I didnt explain my correction. I ought to have done so. Can anyone suggest an answer?

Pedro: Dont we use little when we want to suggest a sentiment of some sort?

Mr. Green: Thats right. Ill give you some examples. Suppose you want to buy a house. You might advertise in the paper for a small house in the country. Youd use the word small, not the word little. You get replies to the advertisement and you go to see the house. What do you say if you like it? You might say, Oh, what a delightful little house! or perhaps, Oh, what a nice little garden it has! Little, you see, is used with adjectives that show feeling. We speak of small letters and capital letters, dont we? Never little letters. We have no feeling about the alphabet.

Mrs. Green: We have three small children at home. If you met them, you might say, Oh, what nice little children! Or Arent they naughty little children!

Olga: Im sure theyre nice little children, Mrs. Green.

 

Exercise 1. Enumerate all language problems which the students discuss with Mr. Green.

 

Exercise 2. Think and discuss the following questions.

1) What are your aims of learning English?

2) What information in the text was quite new to you?

3) Do you ever use slang in your speech?

4) Can you give your own examples of British and American English?

5) Have you got any language problems?

 

Exercise 3. Translate into English.

. , . , , . .

. , , , - . , , , , Queens English.

, . , , ( ), , . . .

: pretty boy ; poor fish ; cold fish .

, : eats ; cat beer .

: dirt, cabbage, blood, boot - ; quid ; buck ;

: big boy ; six-shooter .

 

Exercise 4. Read and translate the text where Helen Unwin tells how she spent her day. Think of the way an American student will describe the same events using the words in brackets.

Helen (Great Britain):

I got up at half past seven. I put on my dressing gown, went into the bathroom and turned on the bath taps. After my bath I had breakfast with my parents on the terrace. Our flats on the fifteenth floor, so the views terrific. At eight oclock my mum and I took the lift to the car park under our block of flats. First we stopped for petrol, then she drove me to school. The motorway was really busy cars everywhere. When I got to school it was raining. Luckily Id brought my wellington boots and an umbrella, so I didnt get wet.

School was OK, except that we had a maths exam before break. I think I failed it. Anyway, after school I took a bus to the city centre to meet my sister, Susan. She became a primary school teacher after she left university last year. We went out for dinner to a Chinese restaurant. Personally I dont like rice, so I ordered chips instead. Susan disapproved. After sweet and coffee we paid the bill and left. It had stopped raining but the pavements were still wet. Susan gave me a lift home, then I did some history homework for the next day, watched a film on the TV and went to bed at about half past eleven. I was really tired.

 

(Test, deck, around, pooped, French-fries, elevator, gas, college, bath robe, freeway, check, flunked, parking lot, galoshes, automobiles, faucets, ate out, assignment, dessert, ate, apartment, movie, grade, downtown, recess, apartment block, mom, sidewalks, underneath, a drive home.)

 

UNIT VI.

 

Quiz: Do you know Britain well?

 

1. Give the names of

a) the longest river,

b) the highest mountain,

c) the largest lake,

d) the largest city outside London,

e) the busiest port in the British Isles.

2. How wide is the English Channel at its narrowest part?

3. Which river does Oxford stand on?

4. What is the main difference between the Cumbrians and the Cambrians?

5. What is Wales rich in?

6. What is the average winter temperature in Great Britain?

7. Why did the Romans call Britain Albion?

8. What is the name of the English state flag?

9. What is the name of the building in which the British Parliament sits?

10. How many buildings do the Houses of Parliament consist of?

11. Which of the two Houses of Parliament has more power?

12. What is Downing Street in London known for?

13. Where are most of the government offices situated in London?

14. Why is a district in the centre of England called The Black Country?

15. What is the name of one of the biggest textile industry centers in England?

16. What is the name of the biggest city in Scotland, famous for its shipyards?

17. Where is industry chiefly found in London?

18. Whats the City?

19. What important events took place in Londons history in 1066 (1577; 1666; 1836; 1863; 1952.)?

20. What is the ceremony which takes place daily in the forecourt of the official residence of the Queen?

21. What are English buses called?

22. What is the name of the tower which contains the famous Big Ben?

23. What is the name of a famous English architect who built 50 churches in London?

24. Who guards Nelson in the Trafalgar Square?

25. What is the name of the headquarters of London police?

26. Who was the first monarch who took residence in Buckingham Palace?

27. What is the name of London underground?

28. Can you name the person of England whose final Battle was at Trafalgar?

29. Who lives in the Tower of London?

30. What is the money system of Great Britain?

31. What is the famous place in Hyde Park where people can say anything they like?

32. Which park is the largest in London?

33. Who was the famous English general and statesman who won the victory of Waterloo?

34. At what annual ceremony does the Queen of the UK wear a crown?

35. How are the fur hats of the Queens lifeguards called?

36. Who were important prisoners of the Tower of London a long time ago?

37. What are the English policemen called?

 

.

 

1. Timanovskaya N. Spotlight on Great Britain. Tula, 1998.

2. Freeman J., Sharpe S. This Beautiful City London. 1990.

3. Hewitt K. Understanding Britain. Oxford, 1994.

4. Greenall S., Reward Pre-intermediate. Teacher's Book, Oxford,1994.

5. Khannikova L. Spoken English. M, 1991.

6. Hornby A.S. Oxford Progressive English for Adult Learners, 1992.

 

:

 

..

 

2000 . . __

 

__________ 60 x 84 1/ 16.

. . . ..

.- .. 500 .

 

400131 , . , 28.

 

. 400131 , . , 35.


: 2015-08-05; : 17;


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