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Exercise 6. Talk about your home town. Use the following dialogue as a model.
A.: YouТre from Wales, arenТt you?
D.: Yes, thatТs right. I come from Swansea actually.
A.: Ah, Swansea! IТve never been there. ItТs a port, isnТt it?
D.: Oh yes - big docks, steel works and a lot of heavy industry round about. But itТs funny, just outside the town thereТs really beautiful country. ItТs extremely beautiful along the coast - the Gower Peninsular. No industry or nothing - just like it was a hundred years ago.
A.: Sounds great. And how large is Swansea?
D.: Oh, itТs a big city. You mustnТt think that all the people in Wales live in villages. We have cities too!
A.: Yes, I suppose so.
Exercise 7. Comment on the following proverbs and sayings. (Explain their meaning, give their Russian equivalents.)
East or West, home is best.
There is no place like home.
So many countries, so many customs.
When at Rome, do as the Romans do.
Exercise 8. Role play. A group of guides suggests possible sightseeing routes about London to their office director commenting on the peculiarities of different historical places. Each one speaks in favour of his/her suggestion trying to convince both the director and the guides that the route is the best. In the end the participants of the talk choose the most appropriate route.
Some Useful Hints for Russians.
Read and translate the text.
How to Keep the English Happy.
All countries have unwritten but powerful rules of social behaviour, which can only be interpreted by other natives. The efforts of foreigners to explain to other foreigners become ridiculous: СEnglishmen upon being introduced, shake hands and say, УHow do you do?ФТ
Do they? Sometimes they do. ItТs like being told, УIn Russia at the beginning of the meal, the host pours out some vodka and everybody has to drink it in one gulp.Т Life is not as rigid as ceremonious or as repetitious as that.
So, no rules! Remember that we know that foreigners are going to be unfamiliar with our ways, and so long as they are obviously friendly and polite from the heart, it does not matter if they seem to us to behave slightly strangely. You will be miserable if you keep asking yourself, СHave I done this right or that right?Т And donТt feel that you have to apologize in case you have done something wrong. Apologies will distress your English friends and acquaintances. But donТt forget to thank them. And they will always appreciate a card or note from your home when you return.
In the last thirty years we have become much more informal than your textbooks suggest. Many of the rituals they describe no longer exist. But our informality conceals a pattern, an expectation of behaviour that can suddenly rise up strongly within us. For example, a group of English people, casual, friendly and easy-going, is making arrangements for the next day. They will have a much stronger expectation of punctuality than you may realize. Asked to arrive at ten oТclock, the English will arrive at ten oТclock, unless they are invited to a party or dinner, when they will carefully arrive a few minutes Ц but not twenty minutes Ц later. (Chronically unpunctual Englishmen exist, but try not to imitate them.)
Then, life in the country is more organized, people are much more tired by work than you may realize. Busy people have complex timetables. If you are invited for a meeting from half past ten to eleven, expect to leave at eleven Ц unless your host presses you to stay. ItТs wiser not to launch into another long story as the Englishman opposite shuffles his papers or begins to wriggle in his chair.
Most English people get up and go to bed earlier than you do. So, expect to be up and around and working by about nine and nobody will be surprised if you are washing yourself around seven a.m. On the other hand, donТt try to telephone acquaintances after 10 p.m. unless you know them well. Some people donТt mind being phoned at midnight, but they are very rare.
The English, though you will find them friendly, do not rush to invite people to their homes Ц a great pity, but a fact. However, a minority is extremely hospitable and you may find yourself invited to someoneТs home for an evening or at midday Ц or indeed for afternoon tea. With such people there should be no problems. They will want to make you feel comfortable, they will enjoy showing you all sorts of things with which you may be perfectly well acquainted, and they will display astonishing ignorance about your own home life. My advice is: СAsk, if you donТt know what to do next, whenever you donТt understand something which seems important.Т People enjoy explaining. And if you are asked questions, try to explain in answer. People enjoy trying to understand. But donТt feel that a simple question needs a ten-minute answer. Stop before you have completed your story, so that your friend can ask further questions. First, you may find that they have completely misunderstood you, and you need to start again. Secondly, English culture unlike Russian culture, doesnТt normally include monologues.
Homes and individuals differ so much that it is impossible to generalize about what you will find. But there is an underlying СpatternТ to English hospitality, which differs from the Russian СpatternТ. Let us suppose you have been invited out for the evening. You will be given a meal but it will not be waiting for you as soon as you arrive. First, there is a period of anticipation, when people sit around, talking, getting to know each other, and sipping a preparatory drink. DonТt expect much to drink at this stage: you may be offered a second drink but very rarely more. This is a period when the English often seem to talk about nothing. Call people by the names by which they are introduced to you. And you will have already discovered that since we do not use patronymics you will have to reconcile yourself to the use of your first name only.
Meals will certainly have two courses and if the occasion is fairly formal, quite probably three courses: a Сfirst courseТ/ТstarterТ which will be light and probably cold, or a soup; a Сmain courseТ which will have meat or fish and vegetables, and a sweet course Ц a pudding or cheese or fruit. There will probably be bread around, but it is not eaten at such meals as often as with you, so by all means ask for a slice, but donТt expect to eat half the loaf.
Our pattern of drinking is very different. You will already have some alcohol inside you. At a meal you will be offered either wine or beer. Whereas Russian vodka drinkers get the vodka into them at the beginning of the meal so that its delightful effects will last throughout the evening, English drinking is for the pleasure of tasting wine or beer with the food over a long period. Do not help yourself to wine or beer unless asked to do so.
After the meal (and by all means offer to help clear up, but accept your hostsТ word if they say, СNo, thank youТ) you may move to another room, to drink coffee or tea and continue talking. People may play music, get out books or photos, and show you round the house or just talk.
DonТt feel that you have to leave immediately. This is a leisurely part of the evening when the English become most relaxed. You can more easily ask them about the things, which have really puzzled you. If you donТt know when to leave, take your cue from other guests - though if they have to leave early, you may be asked to stay a bit longer. Otherwise, go by the atmosphere. If conversation is animated, stay. If your host shuffle, grow silent or fall asleep, take the hint! The English will never tell you to leave, but if these are people you donТt know well, normally you will have to leave around 11 p.m.
Exercise 1.Give Russian equivalents of the following.
Acquaintances, behaviour, casual, to distress, ridiculous, easy-going, expectation, arrangement, timetable, ignorance, hospitable, to display, to generalize, anticipation , a first course / starter, a main course, a sweet course, delightful, to puzzle, hint, animated.
Exercise 2. Find the corresponding adjectives in the text.
Power, ceremony, repeat, friend, politeness, misery, silence, difference, familiarity, preparation, leisure, delight, strength, length, possibility, comfort.
Exercise 3. Make up 10 questions on the text.
Exercise 4. Give a summary of the text.
Exercise 5. Translate into English.
¬о всех странах есть неписаные, но существенные правила поведени€ в обществе. «а последние тридцать лет англичане стали намного естественнее. Ќо даже в их раскованности кроетс€ некотора€ заданность, ожидание определенного поведени€.
ѕредставление о пунктуальности остаетс€ довольно четким. ƒоговорившись о встрече в 10 часов, англичане приход€т в 10, если речь не идет о приглашении в гости - в этом случае они постараютс€ прийти на несколько минут позже.
” английского гостеприимства есть свои особенности. —начала гостей ожидает предварительна€ беседа как бы ни о чем, знакомство с людьми, некрепкие напитки, сэндвичи. «атем трапеза, котора€, как правило, состоит из двух блюд, в официальной обстановке - из трех: закуска или суп, главное блюдо (м€со или рыба с овощами) и сладкое - пудинг, сыр или фрукты. јнгличане предпочитают наслаждатьс€ вкусом вина или пива на прот€жении всей трапезы. ѕосле еды гостей могут пригласить в другую комнату, где разговор продолжитс€ за чаем или кофе.
Exercise 6. Role play. The information given below contains different points of view of the American students on some aspects of social life in Great Britain. Read it and guess what they like or dislike about Britain. Imagine that you are American students who visited England. Discuss your likes and dislikes.
The British and the Americans speak the same language. But life in two nations can be very differentЕ.
СThe police. TheyТre very friendly and they donТt carry guns.Т Claude, Trenton.
СThe weather is awful. You donТt seem to get any summer heat. ItТs winter all year round.Т Toni, San Francisco.
СThe tourists! The streets are so crowded. I think you should do something about them. And I canТt stand the litter everywhere. ItТs a very dirty place.Т Jose, Washington.
СWalking and sitting on the grass in the parks, especially on a hot summerТs day. Oh, and the green countryside. But why is the beer warm?Т Max, Houston.
СWell, they certainly seem rather unfriendly. Nobody ever talk on the buses. But maybe we havenТt met any real English people yet.Т Eva, Niagara Falls.
СFeeling safe when you walk the streets. Oh, and the polite drivers who stop at a street crossing if they see someone waiting there.Т Moon, Los Angeles.
СDriving on the left. ItТs very confusing. I keep looking the wrong way.Т Paula, San Diego.
Read and translate.
(Mr. Green has invited the students at the Summer School to bring their language problems to him. He, his wife and the students are talking after supper.)
Mario: WeТve all heard a lot of slang while weТve been here. Should we learn it and use it?
Mr. Green: I donТt advise you to use it. ItТs difficult to say whether you should learn its meaning. It depends on your aims in learning English. If you expect to talk to English people of all classes, then youТll certainly hear a good deal of slang and you ought to learn the meanings of all slang words and expressions. If you want to listen to broadcasts in English and go to English talking films, youТll find it useful to know something about slang. But if your chief aim is to read books on such subjects as medicine, economics or engineering, thereТs no need at all to study slang. It would be a waste of time.
Emil: Why do you advise us not to use slang even if we learn it?
Mr. Green: Because itТs too difficult. You could learn the meaning of slang words and expressions without much difficulty, perhaps, but youТd almost certainly use them in the wrong way and to the wrong people. ThereТs schoolboysТ and schoolgirlsТ slang. ThereТs Army slang and Air Force slang. Sailors have their own slang words and expressions. ItТs the easiest thing in the world to learn a bit of slang and then to make yourself look silly by using it to the wrong people.
Mrs. Green: ThereТs another good reason for not using slang. It very quickly goes out of date. SlangТs always changing. You might learn a slang phrase that was in common use ten years ago. And if you used it today, youТd be laughed at.
Mario: So itТs much safer not to use slang.
Mrs. Green : Very much safer.
Anne: Slang is dangerous, I know. But thereТs something else that worries me. How can I learn to talk English naturally? I donТt want to talk like a book.
Mr. Green: I know what you mean. You sometimes use words that youТve learnt from your reading. And then sometimes someone tells you not to use them when you are speaking.
Rosa: Yes, thatТs what happens to me. The other day I said, СI fear itТs going to rain.Т Mrs. Green told me not to say СfearТ. She told me to say, СIТm afraid itТs going to rain.Т
Mr. Green: Quite right, too. СFearТ, the verb, is not much used in speaking. ThatТs quite a difficult problem. You can learn a lot by reading modern English novels and plays. They must be modern, though. TheyТll give you good examples of conversational English. But donТt always use the words that are the nearest to the words of your own language.
Hans: IТve met a lot of Americans. Most of them say СDo you haveТ. I was taught to say СHave youТ. Which is better?
Mr. Green: ThatТs another difficult question. СDo you haveФ is good American English in many sentences where English people would say /Have youТ. If an American asks you, СDo you have any sisters or brothers?Т, itТs quite correct, but itТs American English. If you go to America, use American English if you wish. But in this country we say, СHave you any brothers or sisters?Т, or, more probably, СHave you got any brothers or sisters?Т СHave you gotТ is very common in spoken English and itТs quite good English. ItТs not at all slangy. WhoТs got another question?
Lucille: When I first began listening to the B.B.C. broadcasts to France, I couldnТt understand СHere is the newsТ. I thought it ought to be СHere are the newsТ. IТve learnt that СnewsТ is singular now, but I still find it difficult to understand why words like СnewsТ, СadviceТ, СinformationТ and СfurnitureТ are never plural. They can be plural in French.
Mr. Green: You want to know how to recognize words of this kind, donТt you? The only way I can think of is to keep your eyes and ears open. When you see or hear them, notice how they are used. If they Сre used with СmuchТ you mustnТt make them plural. СNot much newsТ, Сnot much adviceТ, Сnot much informationТ, thatТs the way to remember them. Not by themselves, but with Сnot muchТ. Or you could learn them as Сan item of newsТ, a piece of adviceТ, Сan interesting bit of informationТ. СKnowledgeТ, СmachineryТ and СpoetryТ are other nouns that are never used in the plural.
Paul: And whatТs the difference between СsmallТ and СlittleТ? You crossed out СlittleТ in something I wrote for you last week and put СsmallТ instead.
Mr. Green: Yes, I remember, I didnТt explain my correction. I ought to have done so. Can anyone suggest an answer?
Pedro: DonТt we use СlittleТ when we want to suggest a sentiment of some sort?
Mr. Green: ThatТs right. IТll give you some examples. Suppose you want to buy a house. You might advertise in the paper for Сa small house in the countryТ. YouТd use the word СsmallТ, not the word СlittleТ. You get replies to the advertisement and you go to see the house. What do you say if you like it? You might say, СOh, what a delightful little house!Т or perhaps, СOh, what a nice little garden it has!Т УLittleТ, you see, is used with adjectives that show feeling. We speak of Сsmall lettersТ and Сcapital lettersТ, donТt we? Never Сlittle lettersТ. We have no feeling about the alphabet.
Mrs. Green: We have three small children at home. If you met them, you might say, СOh, what nice little children!Т Or СArenТt they naughty little children!Т
Olga: IТm sure theyТre nice little children, Mrs. Green.
Exercise 1. Enumerate all language problems which the students discuss with Mr. Green.
Exercise 2. Think and discuss the following questions.
1) What are your aims of learning English?
2) What information in the text was quite new to you?
3) Do you ever use slang in your speech?
4) Can you give your own examples of British and American English?
5) Have you got any language problems?
Exercise 3. Translate into English.
—лэнг древен как мир. Ёто отмечает крупный €зыковед, специалист в области слэнга и составитель словар€ слэнга Ёрик ѕатридж. Ђ—лэнгї был и в греческом и в латинском €зыках Ц ведь люди всегда стремились оживить речь, расцветить ее образными словечками и фразами, переиначива€ на свой лад непон€тные Ђученыеї и официальные слова. » во всех €зыках можно отметить эту тенденцию в живой речи.
Ќо английский слэнг своеобразен и неповторим. ќн рождалс€ и рождаетс€ в недрах самого английского €зыка, в разных социальных сферах и возрастных группах как стремление к краткости и выразительности, иногда как протест против неуклюжего или длинного слова, как желание по-своему окрестить предмет или его свойства. ¬ молодежных же кругах, где слэнготворчество особенно распространено, кроме всего прочего €вно выражено стремление обособитьс€ от мира взрослых, Ђзашифроватьї свой €зык, а также желание просто взбаламутить зеркальную гладь респектабельного английского €зыка Ц QueenТs English.
онечно, включать в свой активный словарь слэнг Ц дело весьма рискованное. “о, что мы слышим в речи носителей €зыка, звучит вполне естественно (пусть даже иногда и грубовато), но мы можем попасть в неловкое положение, так как слэнгизмы нередко переосмысливаютс€ и могут звучать двусмысленно и неуместно. Ќо многие сленгизмы имеют широкое хождение в разговорном €зыке. ¬от Ц некоторые из них.
ќ человеке: pretty boy Ц хвастун; poor fish Ц простофил€; cold fish Ц сдержанный.
ќ еде, напитках: eats Ц еда вообще; cat beer Ц молоко.
ќ деньгах: dirt, cabbage, blood, boot - деньги вообще; quid Ц фунт стерлингов; buck Ц доллар;
ќб оружии: big boy Ц пушка; six-shooter Ц револьвер.
Exercise 4. Read and translate the text where Helen Unwin tells how she spent her day. Think of the way an American student will describe the same events using the words in brackets.
Helen (Great Britain):
I got up at half past seven. I put on my dressing gown, went into the bathroom and turned on the bath taps. After my bath I had breakfast with my parents on the terrace. Our flatТs on the fifteenth floor, so the viewТs terrific. At eight oТclock my mum and I took the lift to the car park under our block of flats. First we stopped for petrol, then she drove me to school. The motorway was really busy Ц cars everywhere. When I got to school it was raining. Luckily IТd brought my wellington boots and an umbrella, so I didnТt get wet.
School was OK, except that we had a maths exam before break. I think I failed it. Anyway, after school I took a bus to the city centre to meet my sister, Susan. She became a primary school teacher after she left university last year. We went out for dinner to a Chinese restaurant. Personally I donТt like rice, so I ordered chips instead. Susan disapproved. After sweet and coffee we paid the bill and left. It had stopped raining but the pavements were still wet. Susan gave me a lift home, then I did some history homework for the next day, watched a film on the TV and went to bed at about half past eleven. I was really tired.
(Test, deck, around, pooped, French-fries, elevator, gas, college, bath robe, freeway, check, flunked, parking lot, galoshes, automobiles, faucets, ate out, assignment, dessert, ate, apartment, movie, grade, downtown, recess, apartment block, mom, sidewalks, underneath, a drive home.)
Quiz: Do you know Britain well?
1. Give the names of
a) the longest river,
b) the highest mountain,
c) the largest lake,
d) the largest city outside London,
e) the busiest port in the British Isles.
2. How wide is the English Channel at its narrowest part?
3. Which river does Oxford stand on?
4. What is the main difference between the Cumbrians and the Cambrians?
5. What is Wales rich in?
6. What is the average winter temperature in Great Britain?
7. Why did the Romans call Britain Albion?
8. What is the name of the English state flag?
9. What is the name of the building in which the British Parliament sits?
10. How many buildings do the Houses of Parliament consist of?
11. Which of the two Houses of Parliament has more power?
12. What is Downing Street in London known for?
13. Where are most of the government offices situated in London?
14. Why is a district in the centre of England called The Black Country?
15. What is the name of one of the biggest textile industry centers in England?
16. What is the name of the biggest city in Scotland, famous for its shipyards?
17. Where is industry chiefly found in London?
18. WhatТs the City?
19. What important events took place in LondonТs history in 1066 (1577; 1666; 1836; 1863; 1952.)?
20. What is the ceremony which takes place daily in the forecourt of the official residence of the Queen?
21. What are English buses called?
22. What is the name of the tower which contains the famous Big Ben?
23. What is the name of a famous English architect who built 50 churches in London?
24. Who guards Nelson in the Trafalgar Square?
25. What is the name of the headquarters of London police?
26. Who was the first monarch who took residence in Buckingham Palace?
27. What is the name of London underground?
28. Can you name the person of England whose final Battle was at Trafalgar?
29. Who lives in the Tower of London?
30. What is the money system of Great Britain?
31. What is the famous place in Hyde Park where people can say anything they like?
32. Which park is the largest in London?
33. Who was the famous English general and statesman who won the victory of Waterloo?
34. At what annual ceremony does the Queen of the UK wear a crown?
35. How are the fur hats of the QueenТs lifeguards called?
36. Who were important prisoners of the Tower of London a long time ago?
37. What are the English policemen called?
—писок использованной литературы.
1. Timanovskaya N. Spotlight on Great Britain. Tula, 1998.
2. Freeman J., Sharpe S. This Beautiful City London. 1990.
3. Hewitt K. Understanding Britain. Oxford, 1994.
4. Greenall S., Reward Pre-intermediate. Teacher's Book, Oxford,1994.
5. Khannikova L. Spoken English. M, 1991.
6. Hornby A.S. Oxford Progressive English for Adult Learners, 1992.
—оставители: Ќовоженина ≈лена ¬асильевна
Ћеднева ќльга ¬€чеславовна
Ѕагметова Ќонна ¬асильевна
ћаркова ќльга ¬асильевна
»гнатенко ќльга ћихайловна
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“емплан 2000 г. поз. є __
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