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Sum up the information about antenna types.

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1. Read the new words:

FAX ( fax facsimile) факсимиле, точная копия, факсимильная связь

to refer относить, говорить, упоминать

duplicate дубликат, аналогичный; идентичный

to scan сканировать; осуществлять поиск

to digitize преобразовывать в цифровую форму, оцифровывать

to conceive задумывать, дать начало чему-л.

apprentice подмастерье, начинающий

pendulum маятник, маятниковый

altered измененный, переработанный

milestoneпромежуточный этап разработки, веха

telephotographyтелефотография, телефотографирование

to resemble иметь сходство, походить

modern-day новый, современный

light beam луч света, пучок света

photoelectric cell фотоэлемент

to convert превращать, преобразовывать, конвертировать

pulseимпульс, вибрация


bitmap растр, растровое отображение графического объекта, битовая карта

graphicдиаграмма, рисунок, чертеж, график

grid сетка


receiving end приёмный конец ( линии ), приёмная сторона

Optical Character Recognition оптическое распознавание символов


2. Read the text and translate it:


The fax (sometimes referred to as telecopying) is a commonly used technology that lets users send a complete duplicate of a printed document from one location to another over a phone line. A fax machine scans and digitizes an original document, transmits it over a telephone line, and prints incoming documents.

The idea behind faxing was conceived in England in 1842, when Scotsman Alexander Bain, an apprentice clockmaker, developed a device that could translate telegraph signals into images on paper. Bain’s idea was to transmit metallic letters chemically. The electrified letters were scanned by a pendulum device and reproduced at the other end of the telegraph wire by a synchronized pendulum contacting chemically altered paper.

In 1862, Italian physicist Giovanni Caselli developed a device based on Bain’s invention. It was called a pantelegraph. It was commercially used by the French Post & Telegraph agency to communicate between Paris and Marseilles. Another milestone was in 1902, when a fellow named Arthur Korn invented telephotography, a way to send still photographs by electrical wires.

Edouard Belin invented a device in France in 1925 that most closely resembled the modern-day fax machine. His Belinograph used a powerful light beam to scan an image on a cylinder. A photoelectric cell converted light, or the absence of light, into transmittable electrical pulses.

Although the technology was developed in earlier years, fax machines only became popular after 1983.

Today’s fax machines use a scanner to digitize the outgoing document into a bitmap graphic, whether the original information is text or an image. This bitmap graphic is a grid of dots. A dot is either on or off, depending on whether its area of the graphic is black or white. The fax machine translates the on/off signals as a series of 0s and 1s over a phone line, just as all electronic computer data travels. On the receiving side, a fax machine accepts the incoming 0s and 1s, translates them back into dots, and reprints the document as a bitmap picture.

Because the document is received as a graphic, fax technology is best for documents that do not need modification at the receiving end. You can convert a fax back into a text document if you use OCR (optical character recognition) software to translate it.

These days the Internet provides inexpensive fax services. A number of ISPs (Internet service providers) let users send and receive fax messages over Internet lines instead of public telephone lines.


3. Answer the following questions:


1) What is the fax designed for?

2) Where was the idea behind faxing conceived?

3) What was the Bain’s invention?

4) Did the pantelegraph differ from telephotography?

5) How did the Belinograph work?

6) What does “a bitmap graphic” mean?

7) Is it possible to receive fax messages over Internet lines?

8) Why do today’s fax machines use a scanner?


4. Give the equivalents, using the text:


a) отправлять дубликат печатного документа; сканировать документ; передавать по телефонной линии; печатать поступающие документы; разработать устройство; металлические буквы; маятниковый прибор; отправлять фотографии по эклектическим проводам; напоминать современный факс; пучок света; программа по оптическому распознаванию символов.


b) to send a complete duplicate, an original document, the idea behind faxing, to print incoming documents, to translate telegraph signals into images, the electrified letters, a pendulum device, another milestone, a way to send still photographs, to resemble the modern-day fax machine, a photoelectric cell, the absence of light, transmittable electrical pulse, a bitmap graphic, a grid of dots, on the receiving side, to convert a fax back into a text document, fax services.


5. Correct the wrong statements:

1) The Fax is used to make a complete duplicate of an original document.

2) The idea behind faxing came to French clockmaker Alexander Bain, who developed a device for printing photographs.

3) The French Post and Telegraph agency used a powerful light beam to scan an image.

4) In Behinograph light was converted into transmittable electrical pulses.

5) The bitmap graphic is the document that does not need modification at the receiving end.


6. Finish these sentences by adding a tag questions with the correct form of the verb and the subject pronoun and translate into English:

Model: Fax machines became popular after 1983.

Fax machines became poplar after 1983, didn’t they?


1) The Fax is a commonly used technology.

2) A Fax machine doesn’t transmit an original document over a telephone line.

3) There is an idea to transmit letters.

4) The electrified letters will be scanned by a device.

5) French Post and Telegraph agency can use it to communicate between Paris and Marseilles.

6) We’ve seen a device that most closely resembles the modern-day fax machine.

7) A Fax machine doesn’t reprint the document as a bitmap picture.

8) Fax technology is the best for documents that do not need modification at the receiving end.

9) A Fax switch is a device that listens for a fax signal on a phone line.

10)Some computer networks provide users with a fax server.


7. Supply the simple form or [ verb+ing ] as required in the following sentences. Notice the difference in meaning as well as in grammar:


1) The program director used to _______ (send) documents from one location to another over a phone line.

2) Don’t worry. Some day you will get used to _______ (scan and digitize) of these original documents.

3) When I was young, I used to _______ (send) photographs from Munich to Berlin.

4) The man was used to _______ (receive) fax message over Internet lines.

5) The message used to _______ (travel) partly or almost completely over the Internet.

6) Some mass marketing companies are used to _______ (send) unsolicited fax message.

7) Companies were used to _______ (employ) automated fax-on-demand technology.

8) Computer hardware and software companies user to _______ (provide) frequently requested documentation to customers.

9) Like a fax machine, the fax/modem used to _______ (convert) text and graphics to bitmap image in order to transmit them.


8. Translate from Russian into English:


1) С помощью факса вы можете отправить копию печатного документа из одного места в другое по телефонной линии.

2) Идея Александра Бейна заключалась в том, чтобы преобразовать сигнал в изображение на бумаге.

3) Изобретение А. Бейна было запатентовано в 1843 году.

4) В течении XX столетия технология продолжала развиваться.

5) Сегодня можно отправлять факс по Интернету.

6) Некоторые компьютерные сети обеспечивают своих пользователей факс-сервером, который позволяет отправлять и получать факс с помощью модема.


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