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^

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Глава 10

СТРУКТУРА ЧЕРТ: ТЕОРИИ И

МЕТОДОЛОГИЯ

В предыдущих главах был сделан акцент на рассмотрении изменчивости индивидов, или различиях индивидов по какой-то одной черте. В данной и последующей главах будут рассмотрены, с одной стороны, изменчивость черт, а с другой стороны, различия черт внутри индивида. Исследование таких внутриинди-видуальных различий по результатам тестирования и иным поведенческим показателям имеет как практическое, так и теоретическое значение. Когда индивид рассматривается на основе единого общего показателя, такого как IQ, многие сведения о его способностях остаются неизвестными. Два человека, получившие одни и те же общие показатели, могут обладать весьма различными «профилями» способностей, что выясняется при анализе конкретных результатов, составляющих эти общие показатели. При создании образовательной программы, при оказании помощи в выборе профессии или при оценке квалификации для определения возможности работы на определенном месте очень важно знать сильные и слабые стороны индивида, его особые черты и склонности.

Аналогично этому, использование общих результатов в сравнительных исследованиях двух полов или расовых и культурных групп может затуманить, исказить различия по отдельным способностям. Распространенная тенденция считать, что «IQ» имеет один и тот же смысл, независимо от теста, на основании которого он был получен, приводит к путанице. Например, некоторые тесты на умственные способности в основном измеряют вербальные способности, в других гораздо больше внимания уделяется пространственным и перцептивным функциям. Даже разные уровни одного и того же теста могут активизировать разные комбинации способностей — это факт, на который мы обращали внимание при обсуждении возрастных различий (гл. 8).


414 Дифференциальная психология


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