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A language which is a mother tongue of several nations is called a polyethnic language or a nationally heterogeneous language, e.g. English, German, Spanish, etc.

In a polyethnic language there can exist a great variety in terms of pronunciation.

A polyethnic language can have national variants/types of pronunciation.English is the mother tongue of several nations, thus it has the following national variants of pronunciation: British English, American English, Australian English, and New Zealand English.

If two national languages exist on the same territory, such a linguistic situation is called bilingualism, as the case is in Canada, for example, where English and French function as two state languages. The linguistic situation typical of a country with one national language is described as monolingualism, e.g. as the case is in the USA, the UK, Ukraine, France, Spain etc.

Individual speech of members of the same language community is known as idiolect.

Ever-national variant of English falls into territorial and regional varieties (dialects). A dialectis a variant of the language that includes differences in grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation. Thus a dialect includes an accent, i.e. a way of pronouncing the language.

An accent is a unified entity of pronunciation patterns used for communicative interaction by the members of the same speech community. Speakers of the same accent typically: 1) share a relevant social or geographical attribute; 2) maintain a uniform set of phonological characteristics, despite a certain amount of limited phonetic and lexical-incidental variation between them.

One of the accents in the country (or more!) enjoys the status of being “correct”, cultivated and accepted by the educated speakers throughout the national community. It is called literary pronunciation (orthoepic pronunciation, літературна/орфоепічна вимова), the term traditionally used by Ukrainian and Russian linguists, or a (national) standard of pronunciation (національний вимовний стандарт), the term traditionally used by American, and British scholars.

A standard of pronunciation can be defined as phonetic shaping of spoken form of a national language received by the educated users of that language which at a given time is generally considered correct,

The term ‘standard’ is to be interpreted to mean ‘implicitly considered to represent correct and socially acceptable usage for educated purposes’.

The use of the other pronunciation types is applied to certain regions, smaller localities, social, professional, and age groups.

Thus varieties in pronunciation within a country can include a national standard of pronunciationand territorialor area accents. Accents always mark the geographical origin of the speaker.


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