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TYPES OF INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS
Merchandise exports are goods sent out of a country whereasmerchandise imports are goods brought in. Since these are tangible goods that visibly leave and enter countries, they are sometimes referred to as visible exports and imports. The terms exports or importsare used frequently yet in reality the reference is only to the merchandise exports or imports.
Exporting and importing of goods are the major sources of international revenue and expenditure for most countries. Among companies engaged in some form of international business, more are involvedin importing and exporting than in any other type of transaction.
Importing and/or exporting is usually but not always, the first type of foreign operations in which a firm gets involved. This is because at an early stage of international involvement these operations usually take the least commitment and least risk of a firm's resources Exporting or importing are not typically abandoned when firms adopt other international business forms. Although this may sometimes occur, exporting and importing usually continue, either by business with other markets or to complement the new types of business activities.
Service exports and imports refer to international earnings other than those from goods sent to another country. Receipt of these earnings is considered a service export, whereas payment is considered a service import. Services are also referred to as invisibles. International business comprises many different types of services.
Travel, tourism, and transportation. Earnings from transportation and from foreign travel can be an important source of revenue for international airlines, shipping companies, reservations agencies, and hotels. On a national level, such countries as Greece and Norway depend heavily on revenue collected from carrying foreign cargo on their ships. The Bahamas earns much more from foreign tourists than it earns from exporting merchandise.
Performance of activities abroad. Fees are payments for the performance of certain activities abroad, such services as banking, insurance, rentals (e.g., the Star Wars film), engineering, and management. Engineering services are often handled through turn-key operations, contracts for the construction of operating facilities that are transferred to the owner when the facilities are ready to begin operations. Fees for management services are often the result of management contracts, arrangements through which one firm provides management personnel to perform general or specialized management functions for another firm.
Use of assets from abroad. Royalties are the payment for use of assets from abroad, such as for trademarks, patents, copyrights, or other expertise under contracts known as licensing agreements. Royalties are also paid for franchising, a way of doing business in which one party (the franchisor) sells an independent party (the franchisee) the use of a trademark that is an essential asset for the franchisee's business. In addition, the franchisor assists on a continuing basis in the operation of the business, such as by providing components, managerial services, or technology.
Firms often move to foreign licensing or franchising after successfully building exports to a market. This move usually involves a greater international commitment than in the early stages of exporting. The greater involvement occurs because the firm commonly has to send technicians to the foreign country to assist the licensee or franchisee in establishing and adapting its production facilities for the new product.
Direct investments.Direct investment takes place when control follows the investment. This can amount to a small percentage of the equity of the company being acquired, perhaps even as little as 10 percent. The ownership of a controlling interest in a foreign operation is the highest type of commitment to foreign operations in the given country. Direct investment operations may be set up in order to gain access to certain resources or access to a market for the firm’s product.
When two or more organizations share in the ownership of a direct investment, the operation is known as a joint venture.In a special type of joint venture, a mixed venture,a government is in partnership with a private company.
The multinational enterprise, or MNE, has a worldwide approach to foreign markets and production and an integrated global philosophy encompassing both domestic and overseas operations. The term multinational corporation,or MNC, is also quite common in the literature of international business. Another term sometimes used interchangeably with MNE, especially by the United Nations, is transnational corporation, or TNC.
Ex.10.Translate the following into English.
Индивидуальные усилия; не достигают успеха; достичь цели; неспособные выполнить; относительно рано; первичный элемент; в своей первой попытке; отвечать потребностям; деятельность, которая поддерживает; сеть отношений; способствовать сотрудничеству; официальное признание; от своего имени; обладать властью; выполнять обязанности; официально признан; необходимость разделить работу; обозначается термином; процесс передачи обязательств; от выше стоящего к подчиненному; не может существовать и процветать; иерархическая организация; составляют основные компоненты; управленческий инструмент; разделение по функциям; которые сталкивались с необходимостью; большие скопления ресурсов.
Ex.11. Add an appropriate preposition to each of the following sentences where indicated.
An organization can best achieve its objectives when its members require a minimum ... supervision because they are competent and goal-oriented. Nevertheless, even ... optimal conditions of individual commitment and self-control, organizations need formal controls. The control function of organizations consists ... the following:
1.Establishing standards ... which all aspects of organizational life are evaluated.
Most organizations have formal standards relating ... spending, production, sales, product quality, safety, inventory, personnel selection, acceptable employee behavior, and so forth.
2. Establishing feedback system by which actual performance is compared ... predetermined standards.
These are best exemplified ... management reports which show, often ... a daily basis, expected and actual performance.
3. Taking appropriate action to ensure that substandard performance is improved and that standards will be met ... the future.
It is common practice to refer ... the standards and feedback systems as controls although it should be obvious that they serve a control function only if managerial action is involved. They are not a substitute ... supervision, but they minimize requirements for personal supervision.
Read the text once again and answer the following question: What are the control functions of organization?
Ex.12. Read the text. Fill in the gaps with the missing words given below.
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