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Tenses in Active Voice

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Tense Form in Active Voice Signal Words Usage
Present Simple   V1, Vs -,? do(does) always, often, usually, every…, sometimes, regularly, as a rule, seldom, never 1. permanent situations or states; 2. repeated/habitual actions;  
Present Continuous am/is/are +Ving now, at the moment, at present Look! Listen!   1. temporary situations; 2. actions happening at or around the moment of speaking;  
Present Perfect have/has+V3 ever, never, just, already, yet, recently, lately, since, for, today, this + noun, so far 1. recently completed actions; 2. actions which happened at an unstated past time and are connected with the present;  
Present Perfect Continuous have/has +been+Ving How long, for, since 1. actions started in the past and continuing up to the present; 2. past actions of certain duration having visible results or effects in the present;  
Past Simple V2(ed) -/? did Yesterday, the day before yesterday, last + noun, 2 days ago, in 1999, just now, then , when 1. action which happened at a definite past time. This action is not connected with the present
Past Continuous was/were + Ving At this time yesterday, all day long / from 5 till 6 / the whole evening yesterday, when, while 1. past action in progress interrupted by another action. The longer action is in the Past Continuous, the shorter action is in the Past Simple;
Past Perfect   had + V3 for, since, already, after, just, never, yet, before, by, by the time,… 1. past action which occurred before another action or before a stated past time;  
Past Perfect Continuous had + been +Ving for, since 1. action continuing over a period up to a specific time in the past;  
Future Simple shall/will + V1 tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, tonight, next + noun, soon, in a week 1. decisions taken at the moment of speaking (on-the-spot decisions); 2. hopes, fears, threats, offers, promises, warnings, predictions, requests, comments… with: expect, hope, I’m sure, I’m afraid, probably
Future Continuous shall/will + be + Ving at this time tomorrow 1. actions in progress at a stated future time;  
Future Perfect   shall/will + have + V3 by the time tomorrow, until 1. actions which will be finished before a stated future time  
Future Perfect Continuous shall/will + have + been + Ving by…for 1. duration of an action up to a certain time in the future  


4. Put the verb into the correct form.


a) Usually we _______________ (to have) classes on the campus, but today we ________________ (to go) to the training airfield.

b) I ________________ (not to come) to the lecture yesterday. I ________________ (not to feel) very well. I hope my friends ________________ (to give) me the notes later.

c) Specialists from our Research Institute _______________(just to finish) the experiment. They ________________ (to work) on it for a month.

d) My telephone _______________ (to ring) while I ______________ (to play) basketball in the sports center. It _______________ (to be) my friend Julie who told me I _______________ (to get) an excellent mark for my presentation.

e) I want to go to this concert tomorrow. I think that I _______________ (to finish) writing my course paper.

f) SSAU _______________ (to cooperate) with Oxford Polytechnic for 10 years by the end of this semester.

g) I _______________ (not to read) the book on history of aviation yet, so I _______________ (do) it all day tomorrow.

h) – What is that noise? What _______________ (to happen)?

- I ________________ (not to know). Maybe the machine _______________ (to break down).

j) Do you know who _______________ (to invent) this kind of engine?

k) I _______________ (to buy) this book last week, but I _______________ (to read) it yet.

l) Annie asked me how to use this machine, She _______________ (never to use) it before, so she _______________ (to know) what to do.


5. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English paying special attention to the verb form,

a) Только квалифицированные специалисты работают в научно-исследовательских институтах нашей страны.

b) Мой брат уже получил степень магистра в университете Канады. Я надеюсь, что через 2 года он будет кандидатом наук.

c) Иностранные партнеры нашего университета включают Технический Университет в Мюнхене, Университет Брэдли в США, и другие. В настоящее время СГАУ развивает сотрудничество с некоторыми ВУЗами Китая.

d) Три года назад в студ.городке руководство университета построило общежитие с превосходными условиями для молодых ученых.

e) Авиапарк университета – это прекрасная база для научных исследований и разработок.

f) Многие выпускники СГАУ в настоящее время работают в конструкторских бюро в России и за рубежом.

6. a) Read the following document about the establishment of Kuibyshev Institute of Aviation.



b) Compare the Institute of 1942 with the University of 2010.


In 1942 the name was Kuybyshev Institute of Aviation Now the name is Samara State Aerospace University


1. Work in groups. Make a presentation of SSAU in the year of 2050. You may speak about the following:


Ø the name


Ø faculties, specialization


Ø number of teachers, students


Ø classrooms, laboratories


Ø facilities


Ø extra-curricular activities (students theatre, etc…)


Ø location


Ø whatever idea you have


1. Write a paragraph (100-150 words) saying why you have chosen SSAU. Follow the structure:

a) Write a topic sentence.

I have chosen Samara State Aerospace University for several reasons.

b) Give three reasons. Make use of the linking devices for listing:





The second reason is…


c) To each reason give a suitable example. Make use of the linking devices for examplification:

For example,

For instance,

To prove,

d) Finish up your paragraph with a conclusion. Make use of the linking devices for conclusion.

To sum it up,

In conclusion,

To crown it up,




1. Space Quiz. How much do you know about space exploration? Choose the correct variant.


1. Who was the first man to go to the outer space?

A. S.P. Korolev C. Yury Gagarin
B. Neil Armstrong D. Konstantin Tsiolkovsky


2. Which country was the first to land on the Moon?

A. France C. Russia
B. The USA D. Australia


3. Who was S.P. Korolyov?

A. a cosmonaut C. a designer
B. a director of SSAU D. a pilot

4.When was the first artificial Earth satellite launched?

A. In 1920s C. In 1980s
B. In 1950s D. In 2000


5. Who was the first woman cosmonaut?

A. Valentina Tereshkova C. Svetlana Savitskaya
B. Ivins Marsha Sue D. Yamazaki Naoko


6. Which of these animals were never is space?

A. Dogs C. Rabbits
B. Monkeys D. Turtles


7. Which of these places doesn’t hold an airshow?

A. Baikonur C. Zhukovsky
B. Le Bourget D. Farnborough




1. Practise reading the following words.


launch lɔ:ntʃ
vehicle ‘vıƏkl
enthusiast ın’Ɵju:zıæst
jet propulsion ʤet prƏ’pΛlʃn
weapon ‘wepƏn
cruise kru:z
missile mı’saıl
artificial .a:tı’fıʃl
satellite ‘sætƏlaıt
authorities Ə’Ɵɔ:rıtız



2. Match the terms with their Russian equivalents. Make use of a dictionary if necessary.


1. space exploration a) крылатая ракета
2. rocket weapon b) планер
3. glider c) ракета-носитель
4. jet propulsion d) освоение космоса
5. cruise missile e) совершающий космические полеты
6. manned spacecraft f) искусственный спутник
7. space booster g) ракетное оружие
8. space-faring h) межпланетная зондирующая ракета
9. artificial satellite i) реактивное движение
10. interplanetary probe j) пилотируемый космический аппарат

3. a) You are going to read the text about S.P. Korolev. Brainstorm what information it will contain.

I think the text can be about his family… _____________________________


b) Read the text to see if your guesses are correct.

Sergei Pavlovich Korolev (1907-1966) is the founder of the Soviet space program. Korolev, like many of his colleagues, went through Stalin's prisons and later participated in the search for rocket technology in occupied Germany. His energy, intelligence, belief in the prospects of space flight, managerial abilities and skills in decision-making made him the head of the first Soviet rocket development center. He deserves the most credits for turning rocket weapons into an instrument of space exploration and making the Soviet Union the world's first space-faring nation.

Sergei Korolev was born on January 12, 1907, in the city of Zhitomir in present day Ukraine, in the family of a Russian language teacher.

In 1922 Sergei Korolev passed qualifying exams at the Odessa professional construction school. At the time, Sergei was already interested in aviation. In 1924, Korolev was transfered to the Kiev Polytechnic Institute, where he joined a group of glider enthusiasts. Two years later Korolev moved to Moscow's Bauman High Technical School, the best engineering college in Russia.

Korolev graduated from the university in 1929 and in 1931 he joined the Central Aero and Hydrodynamics Institute. In July 1932, Korolev was appointed chief of Jet Propulsion Research Group. In 1933, the group was reorganized into the Jet Propulsion Research Institute, where Korolev worked as Deputy Chief of the institute. The development of cruise missiles and of a manned rocket-powered glider was led by Korolev.

At the peak of his career, Korolev led the development of the world's first ballistic missile, which are known today as R-7. They became a base for a long-lasting family of space boosters, carrying Russian cosmonauts into orbit for decades in the future.

In the following years, several generations of ballistic missiles, artificial science, military and communications satellites, interplanetary probes and manned space vehicles were being developed. The Soyuz spacecraft which turned 40 years in operation in 2006, was created and launched under his guidance. Korolev died at the height of his career on January 14, 1966.

Due to secret nature of the Soviet space industry, Korolev's contribution to the space program was publically recognized by the Soviet authorities only after his death.


4. Say whether these sentences are true or false.


a) Korolev headed the first German rocket development centre.

b) Korolev joined a group of glider enthusiasts in 1922.

c) Korolev graduated from SSAU in 1924.

d) Cruise missiles and manned rocket-powered gliders were developed under Korolev’s guidance.

e) Today’s space boosters are based on R-7.

f) Korolev died when he was 80 years old.

g) People didn’t know about Korolev’s contribution to the Soviet space science when he was alive.


5. Match the words with their definitions. State their part of speech.


1) Deputy Chief (n) a) a group of people with official power
2) to recognize b) man-made
3) authorities c) the second leader of the company
4) to appoint d) help and advice
5) artificial e) to know
6) guidance f) continuing for a long period of time
7) long-lasting g) to choose someone for a job


6. a) Match the following words to make noun-noun collocations.


1) rocket a) enthusiast
2) space b) missile
3) glider c) weapon
4) engineering d) exploration
5) cruise e) college


b) Give the Russian equivalents of the phrases above.


NB! When you see the noun-noun collocations, you should know that the main noun is the last one, and all the rest are its attributes.


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