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Text B. A short history of manufactured fibers




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  1. ADVERTISING IN EARLY WESTERN HISTORY
  2. Dental case history
  3. History
  4. History
  5. History
  6. HISTORY OF ACCOUNTING
  7. HISTORY OF ECONOMICS
  8. Let the members of the class ask and answer questions. Give short answers and add a sentence of your own.
  9. Read and translate the text about early days of Russian history.
  10. Shortening Year does no Harm

For thousands of years, the use of fiber was limited by the inherent qualities available in the natural world. Cotton and linen wrinkled from wear and washings. Silk required delicate handling. Wool shrank, was irritating to the touch, and was eaten by moths. Then, a half century ago, rayon the first manufactured fiber was developed. The secrets of fiber chemistry began to emerge. Manufactured fibers now are put to work in modern apparel, home furnishings, medicine, aeronautics, energy, industry, and more. The Early Attempts.The earliest published record of an attempt to create an artificial fiber took place in 1664. English naturalist Robert Hooke suggested the possibility of producing a fiber that would replace silk. His goal was unachieved for more than two centuries. The first patent for artificial silk was granted in England in 1855 to a Swiss chemist named Audemars.
The first commercial scale production of a manufactured fiber was achieved by French chemist Count Hilaire de Chardonnet. In 1889, his fabrics of artificial silk caused a sensation at the Paris Exhibition. Two years later he built the first commercial rayon plant at Besancon, France, and secured his fame as the father of the rayon industry. Several attempts to produce artificial silk in the United States were made during the early 1900's and in 1910 the American Viscose Company began the production of rayon. Nylon the Miracle Fiber.In September 1931, American chemist Wallace Carothers reported on research carried out on giant molecules called polymers. He focused his work on a fiber referred to simply as 66 a number derived from its molecular structure. Nylon, the miracle fiber, was born. DuPont began commercial production of nylon in 1939. The first experimental testing used nylon as sewing thread, in parachute fabric, and in women's hosiery. During the World War II, nylon replaced Asian silk in parachutes. It also found use in tires, tents, ropes, ponchos, and other military supplies, and even was used in the production of a high-grade paper for U.S. currency. A Wash and Wear Revolution.In the summer of 1952, wash and wear was coined to describe a new blend of cotton and acrylic. The term eventually was applied to a wide variety of manufactured fiber blends. Commercial production of polyester fiber transformed the wash and wear novelty into a revolution in textile product performance. In the early 1960's, manufactured fiber accounted for nearly 30% of American textile mill consumption. By 1965, the manufactured fiber industry was providing over 40% of the nation's fiber needs. Every year these numbers grow and today we see that the finest garments made of chemical fibres are gaining the world of fashion. As always, manufactured fibers continue to mean life made better.



 

New words:

inherent artificial -
to wrinkle to achieve -
to shrink ( shrank, shrunk) hosiery -
to emerge - ' blend -
attempt consumption -

Exercise 16. Agree or disagree with the following statements. Use phrases:You are right. I agree with you. Im afraid you are wrong. I cant agree with you.

 

1. The use of fiber was limited by the inherent qualities available in the natural worldfor thousands of years.



2. The earliest published record of an attempt to create an artificial fiber took place in 1965.

3. The first patent for artificial silk was granted in France in 1855 to an English chemist.

4. In 1910 the American Viscose Company began the production of rayon.

5. DuPont began commercial production of nylon in 1839.

6. During the World War II, nylon replaced Asian silk in parachutes.

Exercise 17. Answer the following questions to the text:

 

1) Why were chemical fibres developed by people?

2) Where are manufactured fibres put to work now?

3) When did the first attempts to create an artificial fiber take place?

4) When was the first patent for artificial silk granted?

5) What do you know about the creation of nylon?

6) Where was the term wash and wear applied?

7) What do manufactured fibers continue to mean?

 

Exercise 18. Explain in your native language what additional information you have found in the text about:

- artificial silk or rayon;

- the creation of nylon as a miracle fibre;

- wash and wear revolution and other synthetic fibres.

 


: 2015-09-13; : 10;







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