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Text B. A short history of manufactured fibers
For thousands of years, the use of fiber was limited by the inherent qualities available in the natural world. Cotton and linen wrinkled from wear and washings. Silk required delicate handling. Wool shrank, was irritating to the touch, and was eaten by moths. Then, a half century ago, rayon — the first manufactured fiber — was developed. The secrets of fiber chemistry began to emerge. Manufactured fibers now are put to work in modern apparel, home furnishings, medicine, aeronautics, energy, industry, and more. The Early Attempts.The earliest published record of an attempt to create an artificial fiber took place in 1664. English naturalist Robert Hooke suggested the possibility of producing a fiber that would replace silk. His goal was unachieved for more than two centuries. The first patent for “artificial silk” was granted in England in 1855 to a Swiss chemist named Audemars.
Exercise 16. Agree or disagree with the following statements. Use phrases:You are right. I agree with you. I’m afraid you are wrong. I can’t agree with you.
1. The use of fiber was limited by the inherent qualities available in the natural worldfor thousands of years.
2. The earliest published record of an attempt to create an artificial fiber took place in 1965.
3. The first patent for “artificial silk” was granted in France in 1855 to an English chemist.
4. In 1910 the American Viscose Company began the production of rayon.
5. DuPont began commercial production of nylon in 1839.
6. During the World War II, nylon replaced Asian silk in parachutes.
Exercise 17. Answer the following questions to the text:
1) Why were chemical fibres developed by people?
2) Where are manufactured fibres put to work now?
3) When did the first attempts to create an artificial fiber take place?
4) When was the first patent for “artificial silk” granted?
5) What do you know about the creation of nylon?
6) Where was the term “wash and wear” applied?
7) What do manufactured fibers continue to mean?
Exercise 18. Explain in your native language what additional information you have found in the text about:
- “artificial silk” or rayon;
- the creation of nylon as a “miracle fibre”;
- “wash and wear revolution” and other synthetic fibres.
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