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• :Gerund(§ 15J.
• Word-formation:suffixes -age, -ment, -ity.
• Individual Work:Lab Work "Gerund".
I. Practise the reading of the following words:
laser ['leIzə(r)], maser ['meIzə(r)], machine [mə'SI:n], amplification ['æmplIfI'keISn], concentrate ['kPnsntreIt], radiation [reIdièISn], emission [i'mISn], intense [in'tens], neutron ['nju:trPn], electron [I'lektrPn], proton ['prəVtPn], circle [sE:kl], liquid ['likwid].
II.Make sure if you can read these words correctly and say what words in the Russian language help you to guess their meaning:
Laser, maser, distance, radiation, stimulate, intensity, neutron, electron, proton, energy, material, type, spectroscopy, steel, diamond, operation, holography, photograph, hologram, real, engineer, engineering, molecule, atomic, generate, revolutionary, telescope, control, isotope.
III.Give the initial forms of the following words:
making, concentrating, stimulated, made, waves, lasers, increases, excited, given, seen, including, liquids, solids, purposes, developed, gives, changes, generated, known, allowing, smaller, longer.
IV.State to what parts of speech the following words belong:
Visible, length, ordinary, different, amplifier, amplification, emission, radiation, semiconductor, scientific, industrial, gives, needed, atomic, microwave, unbelievable.
V.Find the roots of the following words:
amplifier, different, development, industrial, intensity, achievement, atomic, revolutionary, building, shorten, achievable, realize.
VI. Form nouns adding the suffixes a)-age, b)-ment and c)-ity to the given verbs and adjectives and translate them:
Example: a) to leak – течь b) to equip – оборудовать
Leakage – утечка equipment – оборудование
с) stable – устойчивый
stability – устойчивость
a) to use, to cover, to store, to break, to pass, to carry, to link, to stop, to assemble, to short(en);
b) to develop, to arrange, to achieve, to move, to measure, to improve, to manage, to establish, to excite, to require-,
c) real, active, able, complex, dense, electric, intense, conductive, capable, special, flexible.
VII. Make sure if you remember the meaning of the following verbs. Consult a dictionary:
to increase, to excite, to give, to include, to fall, to use, to test, to check, to join, to mount, to achieve, to exceed, to oscillate, to reach, to jump.
VIII. Define the functions of the Gerund in the following sentences and translate them:
1. A laser is a machine for makingand concentratinglight waves into a very intense beam. 2. Go on makingthe experiment. 3. The idea of usinglasers came from A.Prokhorov and N.Basov. 4. The laser beam is made by excitingthe atoms of a suitable material. 5. Measuringtemperature is necessary in many experiments. 6. There can be no progress in science without experimenting. 7. Solvingsuch problems helps us greatly. 8. Their wish is masteringthe fundamentals of radio-engineering. 9. The meltingpoint of aluminium is 657°C. 10. I remember visitingthis laboratory. 11. They succeeded in obtainingthese data.
IX.Choose the sentences with the Gerund from the ones given below and translate them:
1. Special instruments measuring cosmic radio signals are being installed in the observatory. 2. Penetrating into space was very important for mankind. 3. Applying the method we get better results. 4. Upon adding heat we can change the state of a substance. 5. When measuring the voltage we use a voltmeter. 6. A number of materials, including some gases and semiconductors, possess this property. 7. For many centuries men were interested in obtaining new sources of energy. 8. The engineer insisted on experimenting as the best method to solve this problem. 9. The importance of scientific researches and discoveries is growing with every year.
X. Translate the following sentences. Note the words which help you to define whether the word with the suffix -ing is verbal noun, a gerund or a participle:
1. Our aim is solving this complex problem. 2. They succeeded in obtaining good results working with this metal. 3. The building of the house will be finished next month. 4. In testing the devices they found some serious faults. 5. The growing importance of automatic equipment in industry attracts world-wide attention. 6. Russian scientists played a great role in the spreading of the metric system in Russia. 7. After graduating from Petersburg University A.S.Popov remained there as a post-graduate at the Physics Department. 8. After Hertz had published his experiments proving the existence of electromagnetic waves, A.S.Popov thought of a possibility of using Hertz waves for transmitting signals over a distance. 9. On March 24, 1896 he demonstrated the transmission and reception of a radiogram consisting of two words: Heinrich Hertz. 10. Using the new method it is possible to increase accuracy and speed of spectral analysis. 11. Thousands of scientists, using the most modern equipment, are studying the atmosphere.
XI. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the functions of the Gerund:
1. Large-scale application of electronic technique is a trend of technical progress capable of revolutionizing many branches of industry. 2. Leningrad physicists have developed a method for using optical quantum generators for spectral analysis. 3. When atoms or molecules are excited they emit electromagnetic waves. By counting the number of waves in a certain period, a very accurate measure of time can be defined. 4. The operating speeds of these systems will be measured in nano-seconds.5.Telemetry is the science of seeing some place without being there. 6. Electronics is not so much a new subject as a new way of looking at electricity. 7. We know of Kondakov's having made the first synthetic rubber in the world. 8. Soviet physicists saw in semiconductors the way of solving complicated engineering problems. 9. These scientists continue working in this promising field of knowledge. 10. We know of Yoffe's having contributed much to the research of transistors.
XII.Match up the words which are opposite in meaning:
a) high, thin, hot, small, long, visible, possible, increase, known, important, include, different;
b) unimportant, unknown, decrease, impossible, invisible, short, big, cold, thick, low, exclude, the same.
XIII. Listen to the following tape-recorded lexical program. Try to memorize all the words and word-groups:
■ laser – лазер, оптический квантовый генератор ■ maser – мазер, микроволновый квантовый генератор ■ light waves – световые волны ■ amplifier – усилитель ■ to make up – составлять ■energy level – уровень энергии (энергетический уровень) ■ to give off energy (light) – отдавать энергию; излучать, испускать (свет), ■to generate – генерировать; вырабатывать, производить ■ solid – твердое тело; твердый ■ property – свойство ■ three-dimensional image – объемное изображение ■ emission – эмиссия, испускание, излучение ■ range – дальность, радиус, сфера (действия); диапазон, пределы ■ wavelength – длина волны ■ by a factor of 10 – в 10 раз ■ to oscillate – колебаться ■ master control – главный орган управления ■ holography – голография
I. Study text A. Try to understand all details. Use a dictionary if necessary:
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