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A point in time.
These advances have made it easier for those academics who have been analyzing
such texts manually ...
Note:Regardless of whether they are in the past, present or future, each aspect has the
same function: the past continuous refers to past unfinished activity, the present continuous
1)to present unfinished activity and the future continuous to future unfinished activity.
1)Can you name the strengths and weaknesses of certain source materials?
Your reading list
+The people who will be marking your essay - experts in their field - have recommended this
list. You should trust their opinion.
- The list may be extremely long and unrealistic and may reflect your lecturer’s bias/interest.
+ Can be a good starting point for research, especially if you know little about the subject.
-It is not considered an appropriate academic source as it may be subjective and biased.
Google Scholar (scholar.google.co.uk)
+ Identifies purely academic sources (e.g., books, abstracts, articles, theses), providing an
-indication of how popular/respected they are among the academic community.
You may have to pay to read some of the material which it identifies.
+Easy to search, should be available through your university and up-to-date.
- Can be difficult/technical/focused on very specific issues.
+ Tend to be authoritative and well-respected.
- Texts can be long and difficult to understand.
General books on the subject
+May offer a useful introduction to the subject (if they are written in a non-academic style).
-May not be considered appropriate academic sources and may trivialize certain issues.
+ A good resource if your listening skills are better than your reading skills,
-Can be time-consuming - difficult to get a quick overview (unlike a reading text).
2)What is coherent and cohesion? Give examples
The areas of ‘coherence’ and ‘cohesion’ are closely related to each other. While cohesion generally refers to the way in which a text links together, coherence
relates to the overall idea of logical development and whether your argument is consistent throughout. Cohesion is an important component of academic writing.
It enables the reader to follow the line of your argument clearly and to understand your point of view. In addition, using this skill means that your text avoids repetition. More cohesive texts are also more interesting.
1) Academic writing is more objective
Phrases such as I think, I believe and In my opinion should not be used in academic writing.
Academic writing is more complexAs a general principle, academic writing is more complexthan other forms of writing. This is because academic writing
often discusses difficult, challenging ideas which can only be expressed with particular grammar and language. Areas where this complexity may be seen include:
Formality of language, Grammatical structures, Density of language
Academic writing has a more formal structure-All writing has some kind of structure. The structure of academic writing is more formal thanother types of writing. The following characteristics may be observed:f t The text as a whole has a specific, formalized structure - the introduction , main bodyandCONCLUSION.f t The text must have cohesionand coherence- it must link together clearly so thatit is possible to follow the writer’s argument.f t Paragraphs should be roughly the same length throughout, so there is a good overallbalance. Paragraphs often follow a similar structure - topic sentence, outline of argument,supporting evidence, short conclusion and transition to the next paragraph Academic writing uses more referencing
Building on the ideas of other people is one of the central features of academic writing. In order to show where these ideas come from (and to avoid plagiarism ),a reference system isused (note: the reference system used throughout this book is the Harvard referencing style).
2) Compare describes the differences and similarites between two things to view one in relation to the other. to represent as similar (liken); to examine the character or qualities of especially in order to discover resemblances or differences; to view in relation to
Contrast describes the differences between two things. compare or appraise in respect to differences
1)When interpreting tables and graphs, it is important to identify the main results and relate these to the reader. Good academic writing will tend to analyze tables and graphs to focus on either meaningful issues or overall patterns and trends.
Meaningful issues(e.g., high point, low point, significant differences, surprising similarities)
• The company’s value was highest in 2004.
• There was a sharp drop in the company’s value between 2004 and 2005.
Overall patterns and trends(e.g., trends over time, long-term analysis)
• The value of the company fluctuated significantly between 2002 and 2006.
• The company price has stabilized somewhat since 2006.
The idea of connotationis very important when interpreting tables and graphs. For example, while stagnate and remain constant may be synonyms, the former has a negative connotation whereas the latter has a neutral one. It is therefore important to check the specific meaning of these words in a dictionary.
1) Plagiarism is a form of cheating and a serious academic offence.
Using other people’s ideas without reference and pretending that they are your own is known as plagiarism. Plagiarism refers not only to text, but also to other people’s words, data, diagrams, photographs, etc. Plagiarism is taken extremely seriously by the academic community. Punishment can range from a deduction of marks for your essay through to expulsion from the university.
2) Direct quotation - a report of the exact words used in a discourse (e.g., "he said `I am a fool'")A direct quotation is a repetition of someone's exact words. This practice is illegal in academic works and if one has to use it, the source of one's work must be cited in the text or in the references.
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