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TOPIC 3. BASHKORTOSTAN
The Republic of Bashkortostan is a sovereign democratic state. It is an independent entity within the renewed Russian Federation, in which it is incorporated on a voluntary and equal basis.
The Supreme representative and the sole legislative body on the territory of Bashkortostan is the State Assembly, locally referred to as "The Kurultai of Bashkortostan". The Head of the State is the President of the Republic.
Bashkortostan is situated in Southern Urals forming a natural border between Europe and Asia. Its total area is 143.6 thousand sq. km, the population exceeds 4 million people. There are over 20 cities and 41 towns in the republic comprising 51 rural areas here as administrative units. The capital of Bashkortostan is Ufa-city.
Nature endowed this land with unique beauty. Indeed, it is the jewel of the Urals. Here side by side with the mountain ridges are beautiful lowlands stretching far and wide. The charm of the landscape is accented by numerous rivers and lakes so plentiful in this region. Different kinds of wild animals and birds inhabit this land: bears, lynxes, wolves, foxes, badgers, martens, beavers, elks and roes. Over 200 species of birds may be found here.
This land is fabulously rich in natural resources. They include among other things: iron-ore, copper, gold, zinc, lead, aluminium, chromium, brown coal, natural gas, manganese and salt. However, the major wealth here is oil, which now forms the foundation of the republic's economic potential, thus boosting the development of various branches of industry.
Bashkortostan possesses a powerful economic potential and a wealth of natural resources. Today the most highly developed industries of the republic number 100 branches. The republic ranks 8th in the capital industrial assets in the Russian Federation.
In May 1932 an oil fountain burst from the well drilled near the village of Ishimbeyevo. It is from here that the first ton of the "black gold" was extracted. After that, more and more oil rigs sprang up along the banks of the Belaya river. A few years later another oil deposit was discovered near Tuimazy. It was Devonian oil. It made the republic one of the leading oil-extracting regions in the country. By 1980 the first billion tons of oil had been extracted. During those years the republic experienced steep economic growth. Oil brought life to various branches of industry and considerably changed the infrastructure of many cities and towns causing social transformation in the rural areas. Today the Bashneft (Bashkir oil) Joint-Stock Oil Company is a large industrial, economic and scientific complex engaged in the prospecting and exploiting of oil deposits. The Bashkir oil-refining industry is probably the largest and the most highly developed in Russia. Among the most powerful joint-stock companies in this industry are the Ufa Oil-Refinery, the Novo-Ufimsky Oil-Refinery and Ufaneftekhim Works, which employ advanced technology of oil refining, producing a wide selection of goods.
The location of numerous oil and chemical industries in the republic causes serious environmental problems. A new ecological code has been recently adopted which defines the legal, ecological and social aspects of environmental protection.
The engineering industry of Bashkortostan is based on modern plants staffed with highly-skilled personnel and equipped with automated machinery and conveyor lines, robot-operated units, etc.
Bashkortostan is the largest agricultural region in Russia. The republic ranks 4th in the agricultural gross output in the Russian Federation and first in the Urals economic region. суверенитет
Following the Declaration of State Sovereignty, for the first time ever, the republic gained access to the international arena, it earned the right to foreign economic activity and direct cooperation with foreign countries and organizations. Within a short time the republic proved itself to be a reliable business partner. Foreign companies have shown lively interest in Bashkortostan hoping for a long term, multilateral cooperation.
Bashkortostan is an ethnically diverse republic. Bashkirs and Russians, Tartars and Ukranians, Chuvashes and Maris are united in one large family here, which is made up of more than 80 different nationalities. The Constitution of Bashkortostan, the Laws on Liberty of Conscience and Religious Organizations guarantee every citizen of the republic the liberty of conscience including the right to choose and profess any religion and other convictions.
In 1990 the Parliament of the republic issued a Declaration of State Sovereignty of Bashkortostan. Its prime value lies in the fact that it looks into the future, unites the multinational population of the republic, directing its efforts towards constructive labour.
Today, Bashkortostan is making confident steps towards strengthening its sovereignty, further development of its economy, science, culture and national traditions.
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