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Part 10. Страны третьего мира. Проблемы миграции.
Exercise 1. Master the active vocabulary:
developing country развивающая страна
developed country развитая страна
low level of material being низкий уровень жизни
standard of living жизненный уровень
high average выше среднего
Gross National Income годовой национальный доход
per capita на душу населения
advanced economy продвинутая экономика
newly industrialized countries новые промышленно развитые страны
Exercise 2. Read the text “Developing country”:
“Developing country” is a term generally used to describe a nation with a low level of material well being. There is no single internationally-recognized definition of developed country, and the levels of development may vary widely within so-called developing countries, with some developing countries having high average standards of living.
Some international organizations like the World Bank use strictly numerical classifications. The World Bank considers all low- and middle- income countries as "developing". In its most recent classification, economies are divided using 2008 Gross National Income per capita. In 2008, countries with GNI per capita below US$11,905 were considered developing. Other institutions use less specific definitions.
Countries with more advanced economies than other developing nations, but which have not yet fully demonstrated the signs of a developed country, are grouped under the term newly industrialized countries.
Exercise 3. Answer the questions:
1.When is a term “developing country” used?
2.Is there a single internationally-recognized definition of developed country?
3.What may vary widely within so-called developing countries?
4.The World Bank uses strictly numeral classifications, doesn’t it?
5.What GNI per capita is necessary not to be considered developing?
6.What is another term of countries with more advanced economies?
Exercise 4.Give the Russian equivalents:
Developing country, a low level of material being, a high average standard of living, the World Bank, low and middle income, Gross National Income per capita, a specific definition, a more advanced economy, newly industrialized countries.
Exercise 5. Fill in the missing words:
1. Developing country is a term generally used to describe a nation with…
2. There is no … of developed country.
3. … may vary widely within so-called developing countries.
4. International organizations like the World Bank use …
5. The World Bank considers all … as "developing"
6. In 2008, countries … below US$11,905 were considered developing.
7. Countries with more advanced economies are grouped under the term …
Exercise 6. Match the words on the left with the words on the right:
1. a developing country развитая страна
2. a low level of material being уровень развития
3. a developed country высокоразвитая экономика
4. a level of development на душу населения
5. vary жизненный уровень
6. standard of living новые промышленно-развитые страны
7. sign различаться
8. internationally-recognized definition признак
9. income развивающая страна
10. per capita общепризнанное определение
11. Gross National Income низкий уровень жизни
12. advancedeconomy доход
13. newly industrialized countries годовой национальный доход
Exercise 7. Translate the sentences into English:
1. Развивающая страна - это страна с низким уровнем жизни.
2. Нет общепризнанного определения –« развитой страны».
3. Уровень жизни может различаться в так называемых развивающихся странах.
4. Всемирный Банк считает те развивающие страны, которые имеют низкий или средний доход на душу населения.
5. Считают, что развивающиеся страны имеют годовой доход на душу населения ниже $11,905.
6. Страны с высокоразвитой экономикой называют новыми промышленно-развитыми странами.
Exercise 8. Master the active vocabulary:
Secretary General генеральный секретарь
to define давать определение
United Nations Statistics Division отдел статистики ООН
convention конвенция, соглашение
designation обозначение, название
judgement взгляд, мнение
IMF Международный валютный фонд
stage период, этап, стадия
Commonwealth of Independent States содружество независимых государств
Gross domestic Product валовый внутренний продукт
Gross National Income валовый национальный доход
country in transition страна в разитии
diversification диверсификация, распространение
integration интеграция, объединение
global financial system мировая финансовая система
low income низкий доход
lower middle income доход ниже среднего
upper middle income доход выше среднего
high income высокий доход
Exercise 9. Read the text “Definition of developed and developing states”
Kofi Annan, former Secretary General of the United Nations, defined a developed country as follows. "A developed country is one that allows all its citizens to enjoy a free and healthy life in a safe environment." But according to the United Nations Statistics Division,
There is no established convention for the designation of "developed" and "developing" countries or areas in the United Nations system.
The designations "developed" and "developing" are intended for statistical convenience and do not necessarily express a judgement about the stage reached by a particular country or area in the development process.
In common practice, Japan in Asia, Canada and the United States in northern America, Australia and New Zealand in Oceania, and Europe are considered "developed" regions or areas. In international trade statistics, the Southern African Customs Union is also treated as a developed region and Israel as a developed country; countries emerging from the former Yugoslavia, except for Slovenia, are treated as developing countries; and countries of eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (code 172) in Europe are not included under either developed or developing regions.
According to the classification from IMF(International Monetary Fund) before April 2004, all the countries of Eastern Europe (including Central European countries which still belongs to "Eastern Europe Group" in the UN institutions) as well as the former Soviet Union (U.S.S.R.) countries in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan) and Mongolia, were not included under either developed or developing regions, but rather were referred to as "countries in transition"; however they are now widely regarded (in the international reports) as "developing countries". In the 21st century, the original Four Asian Tigers regions (Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan) are considered "developed" region or areas, along with Cyprus, Israel, Malta, and Slovenia, are considered "newly developed countries".
The IMF uses a flexible classification system that considers "(1) per capita income level, (2) export diversification—so oil exporters that have high per capita GDP (Gross Domestic Product) would not make the advanced classification because around 70% of its exports are oil, and (3) degree of integration into the global financial system."
The World Bank classifies countries into four income groups. Low income countries have GNI (Gross National Income) per capita of US$975 or less. Lower middle income countries have GNI per capita of US$976–$3,855. Upper middle income countries have GNI per capita between US$3,856–$11,905. High income countries have GNI above $11,906. The World Bank classifies all low- and middle-income countries as developing but notes, "The use of the term is convenient; it is not intended to imply that all economies in the group are experiencing similar development or that other economies have reached a preferred or final stage of development. Classification by income does not necessarily reflect development status."
Exercise 10. Answer the questions:
1. How did Kofi Annan define a developed country? What was he?
2. Is there established convention for the designation of "developed" and "developing" countries or areas in the United Nations system?
3. The designations "developed" and "developing" are intended for statistical convenience, aren’t they?
4. What classification system does the IMF use?
5. How does the World Bank classify developing countries?
6. Why is the use of the term “developing country” convenient?
7. Does Classification by income necessarily reflect development status?
Exercise 11. Give the Russian equivalents:
Secretary General, environment, United Nations Statistics Division, Commonwealth of Independent States, IMF, Gross domestic Product, Gross National Income, global financial system, country in transition, to define, convention, diversification, integration.
Exercise 12. Give the English equivalents:
низкий доход, доход ниже среднего, доход выше среднего, высокий доход, заявлять, мнение, содружество независимых государств, валовый внутренний продукт, международный валютный фонд, валовый национальный доход, классифицировать, новые развитые страны.
Exercise 13. Are the statements true? If they are, answer It is right, if false, say It is wrong and give the true answer.
1. A developed country is one that allows all its citizens to enjoy a free and healthy life in a safe environment according to Kofi Annan, former Secretary General of the United Nations.
2. There is established convention for the designation of "developed" and "developing" countries or areas in the United Nations system.
3. The designations "developed" and "developing express a judgement about the stage reached by a particular country or area in the development process.
4. Japan in Asia, Canada and the United States in northern America, Australia and New Zealand in Oceania, and Europe are considered "developed" regions or areas.
5. The countries of eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States in Europe are included under developed regions.
6. The World Bank classifies countries into five income groups.
7. Classification by income reflects development status.
Exercise 14. Fill in the missing prepositions:
1. But according … the United Nations Statistics Division , There is no established convention … the designation …"developed" and "developing" countries or areas… the United Nations system.
2. … international trade statistics, the Southern African Customs Union is also treated as a developed region.
3. Countries emerging … the former Yugoslavia, except … Slovenia, are treated as developing countries.
4. According … the classification from IMF countries… Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan) and Mongolia, were not included … either developed or developing regions.
5. The World Bank classifies countries … four income groups.
6. Classification … income does not necessarily reflect development status.
Exercise 15. Substitute the Russian words for the English ones:
1. Kofi Annan, former генеральный секретарь of the United Nations, defined a developed country as follows. "A developed country is one that allows all its citizens to enjoy a free and healthy life in a safe environment."
2. The designations "developed" and "developing" are intended for statistical удобства.
3. The Международный валютный фонд uses a flexible classification system.
International Monetary Market
International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Department
4. Всемирный Банк classifies countries into four income groups.
The World Exchange
The World Stock Exchange
The World Bank.
5. The World Bank classifies all low- and middle- доход countries as developing.
Exercise 16. Translate the sentences into English:
1. Все граждане, живущие в развитой стране, наслаждаются свободной, здоровой и безопасной жизнью.
2. Названия «развитых» и «развивающихся» стран применяются для статистического удобства.
3. Считают, что Япония в Азии, Канада и США в Семерной Америке, Австралия и Новая Зеландия в Океании, Европа – развитые страны.
4. Страны Восточной Европы относят к странам в развитии.
5. Международный Банк подразделяет страны с низким и средним доходом как развивающиеся.
6. Классификация по доходам не отражает статус развития страны.
Exercise 17. Master the active vocabulary:
human migration переселение людей
slave trade работорговля
trafficking торговля людьми
ethnic cleansing этническая чистка
outright conquest полное завоевание
infiltration проникновение, просачивание
resettlement переезд, переселение
Decline of the Roman Empire падение Римской Империи
population genetics популяционная генетика
to launch распустить
threefold mandate тройной мандат
stakeholders заинтересованные стороны, круги
Exercise 18. Read the text ““Human Migration”
Human migration is physical movement by humans from one area to another, sometimes over long distances or in large groups. The movement of populations in modern times has continued under the form of both voluntary migration within one's region, country, or beyond, and involuntary migration (which includes the slave trade, trafficking in human beings and ethnic cleansing). People who migrate are called migrants or more specifically, emigrants, immigrants, or settlers, depending on historical setting, circumstances and perspective.
The pressures of human migrations, whether as outright conquest or by slow cultural infiltration and resettlement, have affected the grand epochs in history and in land (for example, the Decline of the Roman Empire); under the form of colonization, migration has transformed the world (such as the prehistoric and historic settlements of Australia and the Americas). Population genetics studied in traditionally settled modern populations have opened a window into the historical patterns of migrations, a technique pioneered by Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza.
Forced migration has been a means of social control under authoritarian regimes yet free initiative migration is a powerful factor in social adjustment and the growth of urban populations.
In December 2003, The Global Commission on International Migration (GCIM) was launched with the support of Secretary-General of the United Nations Kofi Annan and several countries, with an independent 19-member Commission, a threefold mandate and a finite life-span ending December 2005. Its report, based on regional consultation meetings with stakeholders and scientific reports from leading international migration experts, was published and presented to Kofi Annan on 5 October 2005.
Different types of migration include:
1. Seasonal human migration mainly related to agriculture.
2. Rural to Urban, more common in developing countries as industrialization takes effect (urbanization)
3. International migration
Exercise 19. Answer the questions:
1.What is human migration?
2. The movement of populations in modern times has continued, hasn’t it?
3. Which forms of migration do you know?
4. What does involuntary migration include?
5. How are called people who migrate? What does it depend on?
5. What is forced migration?
6. What was launched with the support of Secretary-General of the United Nations Kofi Annan in December 2003?
7. Name different types of migration.
Exercise 20. Match the words on the left with the words on the right:
human migration торговля людьми
voluntary падение Римской Империи
forced популяционная генетика
slave trade заинтересованные стороны, круги
trafficking переселение людей
ethnic cleansing работорговля
outright conquest тройной мандат
Decline of the Roman Empire этническая чистка
population genetics ресурс
adjustment переезд, переселение
to launch полное завоевание
threefold mandate торговля людьми
stakeholders проникновение, просачивание
Exercise 21. Are the statements true? If they are, answer It is right, if false, say It is wrong and give the true answer.
1. Human migration is physical movement by humans from one area to another, sometimes over long distances or in large groups.
2. The movement of populations in modern times has stopped.
3. People who migrate are called citizens of the country.
4. A technique pioneered by Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza has opened a window into the historical patterns of migrations.
5. Voluntary migration has been a means of social control under authoritarian regimes.
6. There are seasonal, rural to urban and international migrations.
Exercise 22. Fill in the missing words:
1. Human migration is physical movement by … from one area to another.
2. The movement of … in modern times has continued under the form of both voluntary and involuntary migration.
3. People who migrate are called … more specifically,…, …, or…, depending on historical setting, circumstances and perspective.
4. The pressures of human migrations, whether as … or by … and … have affected the grand epochs in history and in land (for example, the Decline of the Roman Empire).
5. … has been a means of social control under authoritarian regimes yet free initiative migration is a powerful factor in …. and … .
6. In December 2003… was launched with the support of Secretary-General of the United Nations Kofi Annan and several countries.
7. Different types of migration include:…, …., …. .
Exercise 23. Translate the sentences into English:
1. Переселение людей из одной местности в другую, как индивидуально так и группами, назывaется миграцией.
2. В наши дни движение населения происходит в форме добровольной и невольной миграции.
3. Под невольной миграцией подразумевают работорговлю, торговлю людьми и этническую чистку.
4. Люди, которые переселяются, называются мигрантами, эмигрантами, политическими иммигрантами и переселенцами в зависимости от исторического поселения, обстоятельств и цели.
5. Такие исторические события, как падение Римской Империи и колонизация Австралии и Америки, приписывают к давлению на переселение людей.
6. Вынужденная миграция – это бегство от авторитарного режима.
7. Существуют различные виды миграции: сезонная – в сельском хозяйстве; из сел в город – урбанизация; международная.
Тексты для самостоятельной работы студентов
The term 'Third World' arose during the Cold War to define countries that remained non-aligned or not moving at all with either capitalism and NATO (which along with its allies represented the First World) or communism and the Soviet Union (which along with its allies represented the Second World). This definition provided a way of broadly categorizing the nations of the Earth into three groups based on social, political, and economic divisions. Although the term continues to be used colloquially to describe the poorest countries in the world, this usage is widely disparaged since the term no longer holds any verifiable meaning after the fall of the Soviet Union deprecated the terms First World and Second World. While there is no identical contemporary replacement, common alternatives include developing world and Global South and more recently Majority World. However, there are still scholars who use this term on purpose to point out and challenge the huge gap between the poor and rich of the world
“Measure and concept of development”
The development of a country is measured with statistical indexes such as income per capita (per person) (GDP), life expectancy, the rate of literacy, et cetera. The UN has developed the HDI, a compound indicator of the above statistics, to gauge the level of human development for countries where data is available.
Developing countries are in general countries which have not achieved a significant degree of industrialization relative to their populations, and which have, in most cases a medium to low standard of living. There is a strong correlation between low income and high population growth.
The terms utilized when discussing developing countries refer to the intent and to the constructs of those who utilize these terms. Other terms sometimes used are less developed countries (LDCs), least economically developed countries (LEDCs), "underdeveloped nations" or Third World nations, and "non-industrialized nations". Conversely, the opposite end of the spectrum is termed developed countries, most economically developed countries (MEDCs), First World nations and "industrialized nations".
To moderate the euphemistic aspect of the word developing, international organizations have started to use the term Less economically developed country (LEDCs) for the poorest nations which can in no sense be regarded as developing. That is, LEDCs are the poorest subset of LDCs. This may moderate against a belief that the standard of living across the entire developing world is the same.
The concept of the developing nation is found, under one term or another, in numerous theoretical systems having diverse orientations — for example, theories of decolonization, liberation theology, Marxism, anti-imperialism, and political economy.
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