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Exercise 20. Answer the questions.
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1. What is the International Linear Collider?
2. Is it planned to have a collision energy of 500 GeV or 600 GeV?
3. What is the host country for the accelerator?
4. Would the ILC collide electrons with positrons?
5. Are particles and interactions described by the Standard Model expected to be undiscovered and measured?
6. What do physicists want to do at the ILC?
7. Are there two basic shapes of accelerators?
8. What accelerators accelerate elementary particles along a straight path?
9. What collider would never be able to achieve the collision energies?
10. What kind of colliders has the highest effective collision energy?
Exercise 21.Retell the text.
Text 4. Silicon Valley
Exercise 22.Master the active vocabulary:
bay – залив, бухта
eventually — в конечном счёте, в конце концов, в итоге
hub — центр внимания, интереса, деятельности
to encompass — окружить, заключать
to coin — фабриковать, вымышлять
semiconductor – полупроводник
orchard - фруктовый сад
to sustain – поддерживать, испытывать
convergence — схождение, сходимость
to assure -уверять, гарантировать, обеспечивать
Exercise 23Read and translate the text.
Silicon Valley is the southern part of the San Francisco Bay Area in Northern California, United States. The term originally referred to the region's large number of silicon chip innovators and manufacturers, but eventually came to refer to all the high-tech businesses in the area; it is now generally used as a metonym for the high-tech sector. Despite the development of other high-tech economic centers throughout the United States, Silicon Valley continues to be the leading high-tech hub because of its large number of cutting-edge entrepreneurs, engineers and venture capitalists. Geographically, the Silicon Valley encompasses all of the Santa Clara Valley including the city of San Jose (and adjacent communities), the southern Peninsula, and the southern East Bay.
The term Silicon Valley was coined by Ralph Vaerst, a Central California entrepreneur. Its first published use is credited to Don Hoefler, a friend of Vaerst's, who used the phrase as the title of a series of articles in the weekly trade newspaper Electronic News. The series, entitled "Silicon Valley USA," began in the paper's issue dated January 11, 1971. Valley refers to the Santa Clara Valley, located at the southern end of San Francisco Bay, while Silicon refers to the high concentration of companies involved in the semiconductor (silicon is used to create most semiconductors commercially) and computer industries that were concentrated in the area. These firms slowly replaced the orchards which gave the area its initial nickname, the Valley of Heart's Delight.
It was in Silicon Valley that the silicon-based integrated circuit, the microprocessor, the microcomputer, among other key technologies, were developed, and has been the site of electronic innovation for over four decades, sustained by about a quarter of a million information technology workers. Silicon Valley was formed as a milieu of innovations by the convergence on one site of new technological knowledge; a large pool of skilled engineers and scientists from major universities in the area; generous funding from an assured market with the Defense Department; the development of an efficient network of venture capital firms; and, in the very early stage, the institutional leadership of Stanford University.