Студопедия

КАТЕГОРИИ:

АстрономияБиологияГеографияДругие языкиДругоеИнформатикаИсторияКультураЛитератураЛогикаМатематикаМедицинаМеханикаОбразованиеОхрана трудаПедагогикаПолитикаПравоПсихологияРиторикаСоциологияСпортСтроительствоТехнологияФизикаФилософияФинансыХимияЧерчениеЭкологияЭкономикаЭлектроника


UNIT 2. ECONOMIC SYSTEM




1. Read the following words:

distribution, appearance, variety, structure, category, society, harvesting, procedure, affront, ancestors, rigid­ity, ancient, path, similar, solution, familiar

2. Read and translate the following groups of words:

economic society, a mechanism of survival, the tasks of production and distribution, fairly recent times, in the distant past, the accepted ways, a long process of trial and error, working procedures, the same skills and tools, in a similar manner, equal pay, legal sanction

3. Try to remember following words and word combination:


according to (adv.) — відповідно до

appearance (n.) - поява

argue (v.) - сперечатися

arise (v.) - виникати

broad (adj.) - широкий

carry out (v.) – виконувати, здійснювати

custom (n.) - звичай

determine (v.) - визначати

develop (v.) – розвивати, розробляти

devise (v.) - вигадувати

distant (adj.) - віддалений

distribution (n.) - розподіл

division (n.) - поділ

exist (v.) - існувати

equal pay- рівна плата

fairly (adv.) - достатньо

familiar (adv.) - відомий

fixed (adj.)-постійний, закріплений

in spite of – не дивлячись на

legal (adj.) – законний, легальний

market (n.) - ринок

obtain (v.) - отримувати

present (v.) – представляти, презентувати

procedure (n.)- технологічний процес, процедура

process of trial and error – шлях спроб та помилок

recent (adj.) - нещодавній

regard (v.) - враховувати

rigidity (n.) - жорсткість

share (n.) – частка, акція

share on (v.) - розподіляти

similar (adj.) - подібний

skill (n.) – вміння, майстерність

task (n.) - завдання

tool (n.) - інструмент

trade (n.) – заняття, ремесло

variety (n.) - різноманіття

whereby (adv.) – за допомогою чого, через що


4. What part of speech these words are:

legal, means, different, oldest, selection, ancestors, rigidity, footsteps, pastoral, sanction, able

5. Make nouns from the following verbs:

present, produce, distribute, develop, group, describe, divide, select, change, discuss, decide, use

6. Transform the sentences into Past and Future Simple

1. It presents the mechanism for survival.

2. They are able to carry out the task of production.

3. It is possible to group these structures into four broad categories.

4. These methods are based on tradition.

5. A son follows in the footsteps of his father and uses the same skills and tools.

6. The distribution problem is solved in a similar manner.

7. They receive shares according to an ancient custom.

8. Tradition plays some part in economical processes.

Text A

To an economist, economic society presents itself as a mechanism for survival — a means whereby people are able to carry out the tasks of production and distribution. If we look at the different political and social structures which exist in the world today, and the way in which those systems have developed over the years, we are tempted to say that people have made use of, -and are making use of, a very great varieties of economic sys­tems. In fact, in spite of the appearance of great variety, it is possible to group these different economic structures into four broad categories. These basic types of econom­ic organization are usually described as Traditional economies, Market economies, Command economies and Mixed economies.

Traditional economies

The oldest and until fairly recent times by far the most common way of solving economic problem was that of tra­dition. In traditional societies, people use methods of pro­duction and distribution that were devised in the distant past

and which have become the accepted ways of doing things by a long process of trial and error.

In these societies we find that the division of land among the families in the village or tribe, the methods and times of planting and harvesting, the selection of crops, and the way in which the produce is distributed among the dif­ferent groups are all based upon tradition. Year by year, lit­tle is changed; indeed a change in working procedures may well be regarded as an affront to memory of one's ancestors or as an offence against the gods.

The basic economic problems do not arise as problems to be discussed and argued about. They have all been decided long ago. One follows the path that one was born to follow; a son follows in the footsteps of his father and uses the same skills and tools. A caste system provides a good example of the rigidity of a traditional society. The production problems (i. e. What? and How?) are solved by using land as it has always been used and the worker carry­ing out the traditional skills according to his or her fixed place in social structure. The distribution problem (i. e. For Whom?) is solved in a similar manner. There will be time-honoured methods of sharing out the produce of the harvest and hunt. The elders, the heads of families, the women and the children will receive shares according to ancient custom.

Traditional solutions to the economic problems of pro­duction and distribution are encountered in primitive agri­cultural and pastoral communities. But, even in advanced countries, tradition still plays some part in determining how the economy works. We are familiar with industries in which it is customary, for the son to follow his father into a trade or profession, and in Britain equal pay for women did not obtain legal sanction until the 1970-s.

1. Read and translate text A.

2. Fill gaps using following words:

land, long, path, presents, arise, solved, shares, similar, custom, distribution, tasks, used, as

1. Economic society ... itself a means whereby people are able to carry out the ... of production and ....

2. The basic economic problems do not... as problems to be discussed and argued about.

3. They have all been decided ... ago.

4. One follows the ... that one was born to follow.

5. The production problems are ... by using ... as it has always been ....

6. The distribution problem is ... in a ... manner.

7. The elders will receive ... according to ancient... .

3. Find synonyms among the words:

receive, fixed, different, broad, common, fairly, selec­tion, error, choice, constant, mistake, rather, basic, produce, wide, get, general, make, various

4. Find antonyms among the words:

different, rigidity, broad, old, distant, long, receive, advanced, true, ancient, narrow, same, near, backward, false, lose, modern, young, short, flexibility

5. Make antonyms to the words using prefixes:

appearance, usually, possible, common, legal, accept­ed, solved, familiar

6. Translate the following word combinations into English:

механізм виживання, завдання підприємства та розподілу, найбільш розповсюджений спосіб вирішення економічних проблем, у далекому минулому, основні економічні проблеми, таким же шляхом, згідно з давнім звичаєм, у передових державах, рівна оплата праці жінкам

7. Give 3 forms of the verbs:

to present, to carry out, to look, to exist, to develop, to tempt, to change, to discuss, to decide, to follow, to group, to describe, to argue, to provide, to share, to make, to become, to do, to find, to arise

8. Compose sentences using following words:

1. these, possible, to, group, is, different, structures, three, into, categories, broad, it, economic.

2. way, economic, the, oldest, solving, tradition, that, was, problems, of, of.

3. have, been, all, they, ago, decided, long.

4. in, son, footsteps, his, of, a, father, follows, the.

5. is, distribution, solved, problem, manner, in, similar, the, a.

9. Fill gaps by prepositions:

1. ... fact,... spite ... the appearance ... great variety, it is possible to group these structures ... four broad cate­gories

2. These types ... economic organization are usually described ... Traditional economies, Market economies, Command economies and Mixed economies.

3. The oldest and until fairly recent times... far the most common way in solving economic problems was that ...tradition.

4.... traditional societies, people use methods... production and distribution that were devised... the distant past.

5.... these societies we find that the division... land ... the families ... the village or tribe, the methods and times ... planting and harvesting all based ... tradition.

6. Year ... year, little is changed.

7. The basic economic problems do not arise ... prob­lems to be discussed and argued ....

8. There will be time-honoured methods ... sharing ... the produce ... the harvest and hunt.

9. ... Britain equal pay ... women did not obtain legal sanction... the 1970s.

10. Put all possible questions to the sentences:

1. In traditional societies, people use methods of pro­duction that were devised in the distant past.

2. They have all been decided long ago.

3. A son follows in the footsteps of his father.

4. He uses the same skills and tools.

5. A caste system provides a good example of the rigidi­ty of a traditional society.

6. The distribution problem is solved in a similar manner.

7. The heads of families will receive shares according to ancient custom.

8. In Britain equal pay for women did not obtain legal sanction until the 1970s.

11. Fill gaps using the correct form of the verbs in brackets:

1. Economic society... itself as a means whereby people are able to carry out the tasks of production and dis­tribution (to present).

2. If we look at the very different political and social structures and the way in which these systems ... (to develop) over the years, we are tempted to say that people ... (to make) use of and ... (to make) use of, a very great varieties of economic systems.

3. These basic types of economic organization ... (to describe) as Traditional economies, Market economies, Command economies and Mixed economies.

4. In traditional societies, people ... (to use) methods of production and distribution that ... (to devise) in the distant past and which ... (to become) the accepted ways of doing things by a long process of trial and error.

5. A change in working procedures may well ... (to regard) as an affront to memory of one's ancestors.

6. The basic economic problems do not... (to arise) as problems ... (to discuss) and ... (to argue) about.

7. Traditional solutions to the economic problems .. (to encounter) in primitive agricultural and pastoral communities.

12. Answer the following questions:

1. What does economic society present itself for an economist?

2. What broad categories can different economic sys­tems be grouped into?

3. What methods of production and distribution do people in traditional societies use?

4. What example does a caste system provide?

5. How are the production problems (What? and How?) solved in traditional societies?

6. What part does tradition play in advanced countries? Give examples.

13. Retell the text 'Economic System'.

14. Read text B.

Text В


Поделиться:

Дата добавления: 2015-09-14; просмотров: 83; Мы поможем в написании вашей работы!; Нарушение авторских прав





lektsii.com - Лекции.Ком - 2014-2024 год. (0.006 сек.) Все материалы представленные на сайте исключительно с целью ознакомления читателями и не преследуют коммерческих целей или нарушение авторских прав
Главная страница Случайная страница Контакты