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TABLE OF TENSES
|| FUTURE (will, ‘ll)
Always, usually, regularly, rarely, seldomly:
Every hour, week, year, century
1. regular activities
2. permanent states
I go to school by bus.
How do you get to school?
I live in St. Petersburg.
He lives in Canada. (3rd person, singular)
Where do you come from?
He doesn’tlike chemistry.
What do you do?
My train leaves/departs at 9pm.
When does your train leave?
|| 1. single action in the past
Last year/week/Monday, 2 days ago, 5minutes ago, at 5 o’clock yesterday,
I saw him last week.
I didn’t see him last week.
Did you see him last week?
We moved here 2 years ago.
2. repeated action in the past
I did my homework when I studied in sch 30.
(*) From 2004 to 2006 I lived in London.
Yesterday I skied, watched TV, read a book.
V (past simple)
I didn’t see him last week.
Did you go to England this summer?
Alternative structure. Habitual actions:
Misha used to do his homework.
(=He doesn’t do it now)
РаньшеМиша делал дз.
I didn’t use to study that much in 192.
Did you use to smoke that much in middle school?
Did you use to study that much?
He didn’t use to smoke that much.
My parents would (бывало) give me an apple a day.(=used to give me an apple a day)
=My parents used to give…
I didn’t use to be a brilliant student.
|| Sudden decisions
The door is ringing. – I’ll answer the door.
I’ll never do it again.
I’ll kill you, if you don’t give me your money.
I will not do this home task!
Will you be home at 5?
Are you going to be home at 5?
Will + not = won’t / shall + not = shan’t
In 2050, next Monday, month, year, century
At 5 o’clock tomorrow
|| At the moment, right now
1. actions in progress at the moment;
2. temporary situations (сейчас, пока);
3. always + continuous (annoyance) - вечно
4. personal arrangement/appointment
(am/is/are) + Ving
Sasha is trying to concentrate.
What is Sasha doing?
Masha is studying English.
I am having breakfast.
What is he doing now?/
What does he do?
She always wakes up at 6am. (всегда)
She is always waking up at 6am.(вечно)
I am seeing (=visit) my dentist at 6pm.
I am meeting my friends tonight.
|| Was (singular) /were (plural) + Ving
1. longer action as a background
I was getting on the bus and broke my arm.
While (пока) (+Cont) /when (Simple)
I was getting on the bus when I broke my arm.
[While I was getting on the bus], I broke my arm.
[I broke my arm] [while I was getting on the bus].
2. 2 simultaneous actions
While (в то время как/пока)
While I was breaking his arm, he was screaming.
3. action in progress at a stated time in the past
I was playing tennis at 5 o’clock yesterday.
What were you doing at 5 o’clock yesterday?
|| At 5 o’clock tomorrow
At this time tomorrow, next week, next year
This time tomorrow I willbesunbathing.
|| Ever, never, just, yet, already, recently,
Have/has (3rd person, singular) +V (past participle)
1.the result is more important than the action
He has already/just come.
Has he come yet?
He hasn’t come yet.
Have you ever been TO/in England?
You’ve been playing for hours. (несколько)
We have known each other for 5 years.
How long have you known each other?
I haven’t seen you for ages.
I haven’t played computer for 2 daysL
I havejust seen him./(I saw him 5 minutes ago)
(прим. AE : I just saw him.)
|| had+ V past participle
by(к) 5 o’clock yesterday
Past Perfect [by the time Past Simple]
We hadcleaned everything [by the time the parents returned.] (УЖЕ)
After, before – не требуют Perfect
We went out after we finished work.
(We went out after we had finished work.)
только после того, как
We had dinner when he came.
Мы пообедали после того, как он пришел
We had dinner after he had come.
Мы пообедали только после того, как он пришел.
We had dinner before he came.
We had had dinner when he came.
We had known each other for 5 years before we married.
She has said that she has already seen that film.
She said yesterday that she had already seen that film.
I crossed the street and I saw him.
I was crossing the street when I saw him.
I crossed the street when I saw him. (причинно-следственная связь)
(=I saw him and crossed the street)
Я перешел улицу, когда увидел его.
I had crossed the street when I saw him.
Я уже перешел улицу, когда увидел его.
Iwas crossing the street when I saw him.
…переходил …, когда ….
|| By 5 o’clock tomorrow
By the time [_Pr_ __Simple_] (!)
Will have Vp.p.
Pr.S is used in time clauses with future meaning
We will have finished by the time he comes
When he has visited Sweden, he will have been to every country in Europe.
Когда он посетит Швецию, получится, что он побывал во всех странах Европы.
|| Have/has + been + V-ing
For– длительность, 5 hours, 3 days,
all night, all day long
Since [_Past Simple___ ====]
For[period of time]/
for hours – несколько часов
I’ve been working for hours.
I haven’t seen you for ages.
I work for hours.
I have been reading for 2 hours.
How long have you been reading?
How long have you been waiting?
Have you been waiting long?
You look tired. Have you been running?
I am exhausted. I’ve been working all night/for hours. -
I‘ve been studying English since I was 10 years old.
She has lived in Amsterdam for 2 years. She has a lot of friends there.
She has been living in Amsterdam for 2 years. She still doesn’t understand Dutch.
|| had been Ving
I had been studying French for 2 years [before I went to Paris.]
How long had she beenpracticing [before she won the competition]?
How long had you been learning English [before you went to the UK]?
Мы были знакомы 5 лет, прежде чем поженились.
Сколько лет вы были знакомы до свадьбы.
We had known each other for 5 years [before we got married].
We had been going out together for 5 years [before we got married].
How long had you known each other [before you married].
|| Will + have been Ving
На будущий год 5 лет нашего знакомства.
Next year we will have known each other for 5 years.
В понедельник у нас золотая свадьба.
Next Monday we will have been married for 50 years.
Через год будет 25 лет, как он здесь работает.
Next year he will have been working here for 25 years
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