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VOCABULARY NOTES. 1. historic adj исторический (имеющий историческое значение, вошедший в историю), е.g




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  1. ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (II)
  2. Exercise 6. Answer the following questions using active vocabulary.
  3. Exercise 8. Work in pairs. Translate the following two texts into Ukrainian. Use Vocabulary 3–4 and Exercises 3A–4A in case of difficulties.
  4. Grammar and Vocabulary Exercises
  5. How to take notes
  6. I. Study the vocabulary that is useful to talk about life events
  7. IX. Study Vocabulary Notes and translate the illustrative examples into Russian.
  8. Key-vocabulary to Unit 1
  9. NOTES DE PASSAGE
  10. NOTES ON STYLE

1. historic adj исторический (имеющий историческое значение, вошедший в историю), е.g. historic place, date, speech, event, battle, etc. 1812 was a historic year for Russian people.

historical adj исторический (связанный с историей, имеющий отношение к истории), е.g. historical materialism, science, principles, method, approach (to); historical novel, picture, play, film; historical department, museum, etc.

history n история, е.g. the history of our country, the history of the language; a history lesson; the History Museum.

Note 1:In names of academic subjects no article is used, е.g. History of the English language is a difficult subject

Note2: The Russian word история has several English equivalents: а) история (ход развития чего-л.) — history, е.g. This town has an interesting history.; b) рассказ, повествование — story, е.g. Idon't like stories of such kind. He told us the story of his whole life.; с) происшествие — event, е.g. Tell us something about this strange event. But: A funny thing happened to him. (С ним произошла забавная история.) There's a pretty kettle of fish! (Вот так история!)

2. worth n ценность, е.g. It's a discovery of great worth. This information is of no worth.

worth adj predic стоящий; worth smth., е.g. This picture is not worth the money you've paid for it. This problem is not worth our attention. This job is not worth the time we've spent on it.; worth doing smth., е.g. This film is worth seeing. Books of that kind are not worth reading. This problem isn't worth discussing. His illness is hardly worth troubling about.; worth while, е.g. It isn't worth while seeing the film. It isn't worth while sitting here till 5 o'clock. It is worth while trying to catch the train, I think it's worth while speaking to him about it. Cf.: This book is worth reading. — It is worth while reading this book.

worthyadj достойный, е.g. She is a very worthy woman.; to be worthy of smth.,smb., е.g. His behaviour is worthy of great praise.

unworthy adj недостойный

3. masterpiece n шедевр

piece n 1. кусок, ps a piece of chalk (wood, paper, etc.)

Syn. lump, slice. A slice is a thin, flat piece cut off from anything, as a slice of bread (cheese, lemon, ham, etc.). A lumpis a small specially shaped or shapeless piece, as a lump of sugar (butter, etc.).



to piecesна куски, е.g. The cup fell and was broken to pieces.

2. отдельный предмет, часть, е.g. a piece of furniture; a, piece of poetry (стихотворение); a piece of painting (картина); a piece of advice (совет); apiece of news (новость);

3. монета, е.g. a two-shilling piece, a gold (silver) piece

Syn. coin (used more often than piece)

4. human adj человеческий, свойственный человеку, е.g. a human nature, the human body, human affairs, a human being (человек); hu'maneadj гуманный, человечный

Ant. cruel

inhuman adj бесчеловечный, as inhuman treatment

humanity n (uncountable) 1. человечество, as a crime against humanity

Syn. man'kindn (uncounfable). But 'mankindмужчины, мужской пол

2. гуманность, человечность, as to treat people with humanity

the Humanitiesгуманитарные науки; syn. the Arts, е.g. Are you interested in the Humanities (the Arts) or in the Exact Sciences (естественные науки) ?

5. to strike (struck, struck)υt 1. ударяться, бить; to strike smb., to strike smb. (smth.) on smth. е.g. He struck the boy a violent blow. The man struck Lanny on the face. He struck his fist on the table.



Syn. to hit (hit, hit), е.g. Why did he hit the boy?; to hit one's hand (foot, head, etc.) on smth., е.g. I hit my head on the low shelf.

Note: strikeand hit may be used in the same sense — to strike or to hit smb. — but care should be taken to use the proper verb m traditional word combinations such as to strike a matchчиркнуть спичкой, e, д. Somebody struck a match so that we couid see each other.

2. бить (о часах), е.g. It has just struck half past four. This tower clock strikes the hours.

3. поражать, удивлять, а д. We were struck by bis strange behaviour. It struck me that he had grown so old. Many things might strike us as unusual in a foreign country.

Syn. to surprise, to astonish, to puzzle

Nоte: to be struck means "to be filled suddenly with a strong feeling of surprise". That distinguishes the verb to strike from its synonyms to astonishand to surprise; to astonishis stronger in meaning than to surprise, е.g. I shouldn't be surprised if it rained. I'm not surprised at seeing you here, I've been told about your arrival. I was astonished at seeing him so changed. I was struck by his sudden death.; to puzzlemeans "to make a person think hard before finding an answer", e.g. His letter puzzled me. (= I didn't know why he had written it)

striking adj, as striking likeness (news, contrast) stricken pp. terror-stricken; horror-stricken; panic-stricken

Note: the verb to strike has homonyms: a) strike υi бастовать, b) strike n забастовка, е.g. All the railway workers joined the strike.; to go on strikeобъявлять забастовку



6. circular adj круглый, круговой, е.g. There is a circular railway running round Moscow. A circular staircase led to the top of the tower.

circulate υ 1. циркулировать, е.g. Blood circulates in the body.; 2. передаваться, распространяться, е.g. Bad news circulates quickly.

circulation n 1. циркуляция, е.g. The circulation of air is rather bad here, that's why it is stuffy.; 2. распространение, обращение (денежное), е.g. Only silver and copper coins are in circulation now.

blood-circulationn кровообращение

circle n 1. круг, окружность, е.g. It's almost impossible to draw a circle without a pair of compasses (без циркуля).; 2. группа, круг людей, е.g. Не belonged to the business circle of the town.


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