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THE DEGREE OF NOISE
According to the degree of noise English and Russian consonants are divided into two big classes:
Class A. Noise consonants.
Class B. Sonorants.
A. In the production of noise consonants there is a noise component characteristic. Noise consonant sounds vary:
(11 In the work of the vocal cords,
(2) in the degree of force of articulation.
According to the work of the vocal cords they may be voiceless and voiced.
When the vocal cords are brought together and vibrate we
Voiced consonants are: the English [b, d, g, v, d, z, 3, cfe]; in Russian [ 6, 6',B, b', r, r', a- A', *, 3, s'].
If the vocal cords are apart and do not vibrate we hear only noise and the consonants are voiceless.
Voiceless consonants are: the English [p, t, k, f, 6, s, J, tf, h]; the Russian [n, n', dp, (p', k, k', t, t', in, in', h', u., x, x'].
Voiced consonants are not fully voiced in all word positions, in word final position, for example, they are partly devoiced.
The degree of noise may vary because of the force of articulation. Strong noise consonants are produced with more muscular energy and stronger breath effort. Weak noise consonants are produced with a relatively weak breath effort.
Strong noise consonants are: the English [p, t, k, f, 0, s, J, h, tf].
Table 2 Classification of English Noise Consonants According to the Degree of Noise
Weak noise consonants are: the English [b, d, g, v, a, z, 3, cfe]. English phoneticians call the weak consonants lenis and the strong noise consonants fortis.
B. Sonorants (or sonorous consonants) are made with tone prevailing over noise because of a rather wide air passage. They are: the English [m, n, n, w, 1, r, j]; the Russian [m, m', h, h', a, a',