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  5. C. Practice introducing yourself, friends and groupmates. Remember to smile (and use handshakes where appropriate).
  7. D. Think of your own sentences using the words and word combinations from Task C. Read your sentences to your group-mates.
  8. E-mail and Newsgroups
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The development includes exhibition and recreation grounds laid out on three artificial islands in Lake Ontario. In a bay enclosed by the islands there is a group of five pavilions built on stilts in the water and so arranged that the bridges linking the pavilions to the islands and to one another are joined to the corners of these structures, which are square on plan.

One of the pavilions contains a restaurant and a hall. The four other pavilions contain 3000 m2 of exhibition floor space. Visitors walk through the buildings at various levels on footbridges which intersect them in the two diagonal directions. External staircases are provided at the corners and there are ramps along the sides of the pavilions. The pavilions are erected at a height of 10.30 m above water level on 32 m high columns.

At the centre of each pavilion there are four 762 mm dia tubular columns arranged in a square with a side length of 3.55 m. At 20.0 m above water level, four pairs of lattice girders are connected to these columns. The lattice girders extend to the four corners of the square structure and their ends are tied back by inclined cable stays to the tops of the columns protruding above roof level. The top chords of the lattice girders are inter­connected by an edge girder and by floor beams running longitudinally and transversely.

The lower-level floor beams, which are inter­connected to form a grillage, are attached on the inside to the four tubular columns, while the outer ends are suspended by vertical hangers from the ends of the lattice girders and addi­tionally supported by inclined cables in the facades. The intersections of the floor beams are supported by externally exposed trussed bracings.

The rectangular hollow section beams at top and bottom level carry steel trough decking with 13 cm in-situ concrete slab with the imposed load on floors being 488 kg/m2. Wind forces are transmitted through the floor slabs and through horizontal cross bracings between the pairs of lattice girders to the four tubular columns, which are set in open caisson foundations and are inter­connected by vertical bracings.

Ducts accommodating various services are installed between the lattice girders, which are spaced 3.55 m apart. The footbridges inside the pavilions are suspended from the lattice girders.



cable stay ванта, канатная стяжка

caisson foundation кессонный фундамент

island n. остров

recreation n. отдых, развлечение

trussed bracing решётчатые связи

walk v. идти


Ответьте на вопросы к тексту

1. What kind of development is it?

2. How is circulation within the buildings provided?

3. What is the function of the tubular columns at the centre of each pavilion?

4. What are the top chords of the lattice girders interconnected by?

5. How are the lower-level floor beams supported?

6. What do the rectangular hollow section beams carry?

7. How are wind forces transmitted?

8. Where are service ducts installed?

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