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A. Read and translate the text. 1 Entrepreneur is a man who is ready to risk his material well-being for the sake of some promising business

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  1. A) Read the two texts and translate them into Russian in writing.
  2. A. Complete the sentences according to the information in the text.
  3. A. Do pre-reading tasks before each abstract, then read and translate the abstracts about the basics of management.
  4. A. Read and translate the text.
  5. A. Read and translate the text.
  6. A. Read and translate the text.
  7. A. Read and translate the text.
  8. A. Read and translate the text.
  9. A. Read and translate the text.

1 Entrepreneur is a man who is ready to risk his material well-being for the sake of some promising business. Such a person does not wait until he is fired, but begins his own business as soon as he feels he is ready. It goes without saying[19] that the earlier a person gets into business, the more time he has to correct the inevitable mistakes.

2 Not all entrepreneurs want to set up big companies. Most dream of their own small, but solid business. Therefore besides large and small companies in America there are also mini-firms – one-person firms. It is not difficult to set up such a firm and it is not hard to survive for a while[20]. Some of such businesses will remain that way. Some of them will quickly fail. But many, having made it through the first crucial two or three years, will begin to flourish and some even to grow.

3 Entrepreneurship is a motto in America, the spirit of entrepreneurship is the morality of American society, and entrepreneurs are the main moving force of the American economy.

4 Many future entrepreneurs deliberately start a career working for somebody else. By learning the ins and outs[21] of another man’s business and noting his pluses and minuses, they accumulate know-how, put aside enough money and establish business connections. After that they are ready to start their own businesses.

5 A car mechanic, while working for his boss, began to earn additionally in his free time in the evenings. Eventually he had his own clientele. He saved up some money, borrowed the rest and built a small three-car repair shop. Now he works for himself and has turned into an entrepreneur.

6 Another man, a competent engineer, set up a small factory producing electricity measuring devices some 40-45 years ago. There were times when he could have expanded production (and correspondingly increased profits), but he never wanted to. He earned enough as it was[22]. He is proud of the fact that aircraft plants buy his devices and NASA uses them on its shuttle spaceships and satellites. He began his business by himself in his garage. Now 49 people work at his factory. The atmosphere is almost like one big family. He is already 75, but he actively runs the business nevertheless, always introducing new technologies. He regularly gives to charity organizations. He is a typical American businessman and entrepreneur.

7 Even people with intellectual professions are not afraid to try other things and get into business. A professional doing some business is a normal phenomenon in America. It is respected and encouraged by society. And for anyone who has some trade – housepainter, electrician, a joiner – it is even easier to start his own business.

8 Of course, to work for someone else is less trouble: someone creates a job for you, gets orders, collects money from the clients and takes on the responsibility for making both ends meet[23]. At night, he figures if he has enough money to write out your paycheck, pay the rent for the building, buy equipment and supplies and on and on. And you calmly put in your hours from 9 to 5, and rest on weekends and holidays (something the owner can’t always permit himself). On the other hand, entrepreneurship gives an incomparable sense of personal freedom. Anyone who has experienced it would not be likely to turn down an opportunity to become an entrepreneur.


B. Look through paragraphs 1,2,4,7 and find 6 verbs which go with the word “business” and 4 collocations with this word. Give their Russian equivalents.

C. Find in the text (paragraphs 1, 2, 4, 5, 8) phrasal verbs which mean:

заняться чем-то, создать (предприятие), отложить (деньги), сэкономить (некоторую сумму денег), стать кем-то /превратиться в кого-то, взять на себя (ответственность), отрабатывать (определённые часы), выписывать (квитанцию), отказаться (от предложения).

D. Find in the text English equivalents to the following words and phrases:

выжить, расширить производство, поощрять, испытывать (какое-то чувство), создавать новые рабочие места, получать заказы, работать на себя, работать на кого-то другого, менее хлопотно, позволять себе, сводить концы с концами,

внедрять новые технологии, остальное время, ремонтная мастерская, ради чего-то, быть уволенным, не ждать пока тебя уволят, соответственно, дополнительно, намеренно /специально, накапливать опыт /знания.

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