АвтомобилиАстрономияБиологияГеографияДом и садДругие языкиДругоеИнформатикаИсторияКультураЛитератураЛогикаМатематикаМедицинаМеталлургияМеханикаОбразованиеОхрана трудаПедагогикаПолитикаПравоПсихологияРелигияРиторикаСоциологияСпортСтроительствоТехнологияТуризмФизикаФилософияФинансыХимияЧерчениеЭкологияЭкономикаЭлектроника

Non-root morphemes

include inflectional morphemes (or inflections) and affixational morphemes (or affixes). Inflections carry only grammatical meaning and are thus relevant only for the formation of word-forms, whereas affixes are relevant for building various types of stems'

Structurally morphemes fall into three types:

-- free morphemes;

-- bound morphemes;

-- semi-bound (semi-free) morphemes.

A free morpheme is defined as one that coincides with the stem or a word-form.

For example, the root-morpheme friend- of the noun friendship is naturally qualified as a free morpheme because it coincides with one of the forms of the word friend.

A bound morpheme occurs only as a constituent part of a word.

Affixes are bound morphemes for they always make part of a word. For example, the suffixes -ness, -ship, -ize in the words darkness, friendship, to activize; the prefixes im-, dis-, de- in the words impolite, to disregard, to demobilize.

Some root-morphemes also belong to the class of bound morphemes. These are, as a rule, roots which are found in quite a limited number of words and never independently or pseudo-roots, i. e. root-morphemes which have lost most of the properties of "full" roots. Such are the root-morphemes goose- in gooseberry, -ceive in conceive.

Semi-bound (semi-free) morphemes are morphemes that can function in a morphemic sequence both as an affix and as a free morpheme. For example, the morphemes well and half onthe one hand occur as free morphemes that coincide with the stem and the word-form in the utterances to sleep well, half an hour, on the other hand well and half occur as bound morphemes in the words well-known, half-done.

Morphemes can be:

1. Inflectional - vary or inflect the forms of words in order to express grammatical feature. # tense and number - boy - boys.

Features: - generally don't change basic meaning or part of speech;

- generally express grammatically required features or indicate relations between different words in the sentence. # Lee loves Kim.

- generally are productive typically combine freely with all members of some large class of morphemes with quite a predictable effect on usage and meaning;

- occur outside any derivational morphemes.

- suffixes only

2. Derivational - make new words from old ones.

Features: - change the part of speech or the basic meaning of a word

- not required by syntactic relations outside the word # unkind

- often not productive i.e. they can be selective about what they will combine with and also have erratic effect on the meaning # -hood + brother/ child - brotherhood; childhood

- typically occur between the stem any inflectional affixes: # neighborhoods

- in English it is prefixes or suffixes.

Types of meaning in morphemes

In morphemes different types of meaning can be singled out depending on the semantic class morphemes belong to.

Дата добавления: 2015-04-18; просмотров: 18; Нарушение авторских прав

<== предыдущая лекция | следующая лекция ==>
Syntagmatic relations | Morphemic types of words
lektsii.com - Лекции.Ком - 2014-2018 год. (0.008 сек.) Все материалы представленные на сайте исключительно с целью ознакомления читателями и не преследуют коммерческих целей или нарушение авторских прав
Главная страница Случайная страница Контакты