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COMPONETNS OF GDP
Gross domestic product (GDP) refers to the market value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given period. GDP per capita is often considered an indicator of a country's standard of living
GDP was first developed by Simon Kuznets for a US Congress report in 1934.
GDP can be determined in three ways: the product (or output) approach, the income approach, and the expenditure approach.
The production approach is also called as Net Product or Value added method. This method consists of three stages:
- Estimating the Gross Value of domestic Output in various economic activities;
- Determining the intermediate consumption, i.e., the cost of material, supplies and services used to produce final goods or services; and finally
- Deducting intermediate consumption from Gross Value to obtain the Net Value of Domestic Output.
Another way of measuring GDP is to measure total income. If GDP is calculated this way it is sometimes called Gross Domestic Income. The US "National Income and Expenditure Accounts" divide incomes into five categories:
1. Wages, salaries, and supplementary labour income
2. Corporate profits
3. Interest and miscellaneous investment income
4. Farmers’ income
5. Income from non-farm unincorporated businesses
These five income components sum to net domestic income at factor cost.
In economics, most things produced are produced for sale, and sold. Therefore, measuring the total expenditure of money used to buy things is a way of measuring production.
Components of GDP under expenditure approach:
- Consumption consists of private (household final consumption expenditure) in the economy. These personal expenditures fall under one of the following categories: durable goods, non-durable goods, and services. Examples include food, rent, jewelry, gasoline, and medical expenses but does not include the purchase of new housing
- Investment includes business investment in equipments (examples: construction of a new mine, purchase of software, or purchase of machinery and equipment for a factory; spending by households (not government) on new houses is also included in Investment).
- Government spending is the sum of government expenditures on final goods and services.
- Exports represents gross exports. GDP captures the amount a country produces, including goods and services produced for other nations' consumption, therefore exports are added.
- Imports represents gross imports.
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