1. By the People. Bringing the public back into politics.
  2. Public Image of Engineering
  4. Relationships Among Process Areas
  5. The Queens Public Functions

Public relations (PR) is a term that is widely misunderstood and misused to describe anything from selling to hosting, when in fact it is a very specific communications process. Every company, organization, association, and government body deals with groups of people affected by what that organization does or says. They might be employees, customers, stockholders, competitors, suppliers, or just the general population of consumers. Each of these groups may be referred to as one of the organization's publics. The process of public relations manages the organization's relationships with these publics.

Companies and organizations know they must consider the public impact of their actions and decisions because of the powerful effect of public opinion. This is especially true in times of crisis, emergency, or disaster. But it is just as true for major policy decisions concerning changes in business management, pricing policies, labor negotiations, introduction of new products, or changes in distribution methods. Each of these decisions affects different groups in different ways. Conversely, effective administrators can use the power of these groups' opinions to bring about positive changes.

In short, the purpose of everything labeled public relations is to influence public opinion toward building goodwill and a positive reputation for the organization. In one instance, the PR effort might be to rally public support; in another, to obtain public understanding or neutrality; or in still another, simply to respond to inquiries. Well-executed public relations is a long-term activity that molds good relationships between an organization and its publics.

Many firms use public relations activities such as publicity (news releases, media advertisements, feature stories) and special events (open houses, factory tours, VIP parties, grand openings) as supplements to advertising to inform various audiences about the company and its products and to help build corporate credibility and image.

Advertising is generally described as openly sponsored and paid for media communications between sellers and buyers. Certainly, like public relations, the purpose of advertising is to affect public opinion. However, this is normally accomplished through the open attempt to sell the company's products or services.

Public relations activities, like product advertising, may involve media communications, but these communications are not normally openly sponsored or paid for. Usually they take the form of news articles, editorial interviews, or feature stories. One means of relaying a public relations message, though, is through corporate advertising.

Public relations is less precise than advertising. Advertising can be strictly controlled so that its reach and impact can be charted in advance, but public relations communications are not so easily quantifiable: "PR's results depend more on the experience, ingenuity, and tenacity of the people engaged in its day-to-day execution." Although PR communications may be less controlled than advertising, such communications often have greater credibility.


1.Differentiate between PR and advertising. Give your own examples of both.


Ex.9.Read the following passage attentively. Fill in the gaps with the words publicity, advertising or public relations .

The terms and are often thought of as being synonymous. Or even worse, is often called free . The simplest explanation for the difference between the two is this: with , youre saying good things about yourself in media space youve paid for, whereas with , someone else is saying those good things about you in space that cant be bought at any price.

You might have hard time finding pros who cal themselves marketers. Most will firmly declare, We are communicators and people, not marketers. If theyd only think about it for a minute, they would realize that communications and together (with being the most visible part of ) make up one of the biggest components of marketing. and practitioners need to recognize that they are part a very large part of the marketing process. And they are capable of substantially increasing marketing returns by increasing the value of the attained. But they can only do this if their clients message is as fully integrated throughout efforts as it is throughout all of the clients , direct marketing, and promotion operations.

Also confusing is when professionals give the alias of and vice versa. is the information activity of . But plays a part in , promotion, and all forms of communication. is a great deal more than . It is employee relations, community relations, sponsorships, the tone of an ad or a direct-mail letter, the attitude portrayed by a business, and the way a companys people greet the public in person and on the phone.

Ex.10. The key-words of the following text are the derivatives to the word advertise.Use them to fill in the gaps.

Usually we speak only about the of commercial organizations. But nonprofit organizations also . The government, charities, trade associations, and religious groups, for example, use the same kinds of creative and media strategies as their counterparts in the for-profit sector to convey messages to the public. But unlike commercial , whose goal is to create awareness, image, or brand loyalty on the part of consumers, noncommercial organizations use to affect consumer opinions, perceptions, or behaviorwith no profit motive. While commercial is used to stimulate sales,noncommercial is used to stimulate donations, to persuade people to vote one way or another, or to bring attention to social causes.

If a specific commercial objective for a new shampoo is to change people's buying habits, the analogous noncommercial objective for an energy conservation program might be to change people's activity habits, such as turning off the lights. The latter is an example of demarketing, which means the is actually trying to get consumers to buy less of a product or service.


Read the text once again. Summarize its content in 3-4 sentences. Explain, in your own words, the meaning of the words in bold.


Ex..11. Make up the sentences. Put them down into your note-books. The first word of each sentence is given to you.

1. N.W. Ayer, in1877, to offer, the nations, ad, agency, oldest, established, clients, full service, was. 2. Full service, using, artists, and, to create, preparing, an advertising, writers, plan, the ads, means, producing, them, and, staff, writers, placing. 3. So the agent, the way, had, from, the publication, of, as, space, shifted, all, the interests, salesman, the needs, to serving, the advertiser, of, serving. 4. And publications, more, just, now, included, than, newspapers. 5. A young, named, had, the foresight, that, should, advertising, man, advertising, to realize, J.Walter Thompson, literary, sell, magazines, space. 6. By the turn, Ladies Home Journal, general, he, of, compilation, the century, Harpers, womens, and, magazines, had,Cosmopolitan, an exclusive, List of Thirty, developed, including, and. 7. This move, brought, industry, media, truly, Thompsons part, national, into, the advertising, on.

Read the text that you have just written down. What is it about?

Ex. 12. Insert the appropriate words.


Action, static, value, top, preceding, aware, percentage, creating, product, advertising, pyramid, unawareness, objective, coupon, comprehension, desire, conviction, information, company, additional.

The Advertising Pyramid: A Guide to Setting Objectives

A simple way to understand the tasks can perform is to think of advertising as building the . Before a new is introduced, prospective customers live in a desert of totally oblivious to the product's existence. The first of any advertising, therefore, must be to lay the foundation of the pyramid by an awareness blockto acquaint some portion of those unaware people with the , good, service, or brand.

The next task, or level of the pyramid, is to develop the blockto communicate enough information so that some of that foundation group is not only of the product but also recognizes it purpose and perhaps some of its features.

Next, advertising needs to communicate enough about the product and its features to persuade a certain number of people to believe its . This is called the block. Of those who become convinced, some can be moved to the next block of people who actually the product. And finally, after all the steps have been accomplished, a certain percentage of those who desire the product will reach the of the pyramid, the block. These people may request information, send in a , go to a store to see the good, r even purchase it.

At this point, it's important to understand that our pyramid is not .


Ex. 13. Logically organize the following sentences to make up the text. The first sentence is given to you.

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