АвтомобилиАстрономияБиологияГеографияДом и садДругие языкиДругоеИнформатикаИсторияКультураЛитератураЛогикаМатематикаМедицинаМеталлургияМеханикаОбразованиеОхрана трудаПедагогикаПолитикаПравоПсихологияРелигияРиторикаСоциологияСпортСтроительствоТехнологияТуризмФизикаФилософияФинансыХимияЧерчениеЭкологияЭкономикаЭлектроника
ADVERTISING. Advertising is the nonpersonal communication of information, usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature
Advertising is the nonpersonal communication of information, usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature, about products (goods and services) or ideas by identified sponsors through various media.
Let’s take this definition apart and analyze its components. Advertising is directed to groups of people, rather than to individuals, and is therefore nonpersonal. The groups, for example, might be teenagers who enjoy rock music or older adults who attend cultural events. In either case, advertising to these groups is not personal or face-to-face communication.
Direct-mail advertising often attempts to personalize the message by inserting the receiver's name one or more times in the letter. But direct mail is still nonpersonal; a computer inserted the name. And the signature on the direct-mail advertisement is produced electronically.
Most advertising is paid for by sponsors. General Motors, Kmart, Coca-Cola, and the local supermarket pay money to the media to carry the advertisements we read, hear, and see. But some ads are not paid for by their sponsors. The American Red Cross, United Way, and the American Cancer Society are only three of hundreds of organizations whose messages are customarily presented by the media at no charge as a public service.
Most advertising is intended to be persuasive—to win converts to a good, service, or idea. A company usually sponsors advertising to convince people its product will benefit them. Some ads, though, such as legal announcements, are intended merely to inform, not to persuade.
In addition to promoting tangiblegoods such as suits, soap, and soft drinks, advertising also helps sell the intangibleservices of bankers, beauticians, and bike repair shops. And increasingly, advertising is used to sell a wide variety ofideas—economic, political, religious, and social. It's important to note here that, for the sake of simplicity, in this text the termproductrefers to both goods and services.
For a message to be considered an advertisement, the sponsor must be identified. This seems obvious: Naturally, the sponsor usually wants to be identified—or else why pay to advertise? But a distinguishing characteristic between advertising and public relations is that certain public relations activities like publicity are normally not openly sponsored.
Advertising reaches us through various channels of communication referred to as themedia. In addition to the traditional mass media—radio, television, newspapers, magazines, and billboards—advertising also uses direct mail, shopping carts, and videocassettes.
1. Sum up the text in 10 sentences and present your summary in class.
T E X T 3
DOES ADVERTISING MAKE US TOO MATERIALISTIC?
Some critics claim advertising adversely affects our value system by suggesting that the means to a happier life is in the acquisition of more material things instead of spiritual or intellectual enlightenment. Advertising, they say, encourages people to buy more automobiles, more clothing, and more appliances than they need—all with the promise of greater status, greater social acceptance, and greater sex appeal. For example, critics point out that millions of Americans own 20 or more pairs of shoes, several TV sets, and often more than one vehicle. But these critics fail to realize that they often tend to force their own values on others.
Frankly, we all have needs and desires beyond the basics of food, clothing, and shelter. One benefit of a free society is that we can choose the degree to which we wish to indulge our desires, needs, and fantasies. Some people prefer a simple life without an elegant house, fancy cars, and trips abroad. Others enjoy the material pleasures of a modern, technological society. There are advertising sponsors at both ends of that spectrum. Food companies offer natural products as well as convenience packaged goods. Shoe companies offer simple sandals as well as formal footwear.
Proponents of advertising also point out that material comfort or security is necessary before a person can devote time to higher cultural and spiritual values. Therefore, the stress on material things doesn't rule out spiritual and cultural values. In fact, it may create a greater opportunity for attaining such values, since the satisfaction of a person's higher desires is more likely when that person's lower, more basic desires have been met.2 Proponents also point out that, through its support of the media, advertising has brought literature, opera, drama, and symphonies to millions who otherwise might never have experienced them.
An off-heard criticism is that advertising forces people to buy things they don't need by playing on their emotions. Some critics believe advertising's persuasive techniques are so powerful that consumers are helpless to defend themselves. Those who accuse advertising of manipulating consumers – assuming that people can’t resist advertising’s hypnotic messages – have little respect for their decision-making abilities or common sense. Another aspect of the manipulation argument is that advertising creates artificial needs.
Read the title of the text once again. What is your answer to this question?
T E X T 4
Have you ever thought about ‘ children and advertising’? Is it a problem? What is your attitude to this problem?
Дата добавления: 2015-09-13; просмотров: 10; Нарушение авторских прав