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XII. Render the text close to its original variant. XIII*. Use the sources available to find some additional information on the issue




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XIII*. Use the sources available to find some additional information on the issue. Present your reports in the class.

 

Unit XXV

I. Look through the words and expressions and learn them:

Ø wellspring of the tradition – джерело традиції;

Ø coherent unit – зрозумілий/чіткий елемент;

Ø to give comprehensive account – дати повну оцінку;

Ø to posit – класти в основу доказів/твердити;

Ø covenant – угода/зобов’язання;

Ø limitless future – безмежне майбутнє;

Ø vein – тенденція;

Ø to proliferate – швидко збільшуватися/поширюватися;

Ø to share essential characteristics – поділяти основні характеристики;

Ø immutable principles – незмінні принципи/правила;

Ø concomitant(ly) – супутній/супровідний;

Ø dialectic of synthesis and antithesis – діалектика синтезу та антитези;

Ø core assumptions – основні припущення;

Ø to remain entrenched – залишатися міцним/укоріненим;

Ø to conceive of time – зрозуміти/відчути час

II. Read and translate the text:

UNIVERSAL HISTORY

Universal history is basic to the Western tradition of historiography, especially the Judeo-Christian wellspring of that tradition. Simply stated, universal history is the presentation of the history of mankind as a whole, as a coherent unit.

In Greco-Roman antiquity, the first universal history was written by Ephorus. This work has been lost, but its influence can be seen in the ambitions of Polybius and Diodorus to give comprehensive accounts of their worlds. Later, universal history provided an influence on the rise of Christianity in the Roman Empire in such works as Eusebius' Ecclesiastical History, Augustine's City of God, and Orosius' History Against the Pagans.

The first five books of the Bible constitute a primary example of such a history. To the extent that the Pentateuch presents itself as an account of mankind as a whole, from creation to the death of Moses, it is universal history. The story progresses according to a universal principle: the Bible posits that the history of mankind is governed by Yawveh, and that his will is manifest in every event that takes place. The destiny of all mankind, according to this idea, is governed by man's relationship with God. This idea naturally flows into the story of the Children of Israel, whose patriarchs conversed with God and made various covenants with Him. These covenants governed mankind's destiny. This idea extends into the New Testament, which posits that the sacrifice of Jesus now affects every person, and every generation since his resurrection, into the limitless future.



In the medieval world, universal history in this vein was taken up by Muslim historians such as al-Tabari and Ibn Khaldun. The 13th Century Jami al-Tawarikh ("Compendium of Chronicles") by Rashid al-Din (now held at the University of Edinburgh) is a significant example of this.

An early European project was the Universal History of George Sale and others, written in the mid-eighteenth century. In the nineteenth century, universal histories proliferated. Philosophers such as Kant, Schiller and Hegel, and political philosophers such as Marx, presented general theories of history that shared essential characteristics with the Biblical account: they conceived of history as a coherent whole, governed by certain basic characteristics or immutable principles. For example, Hegel presented the idea that progress in history is actually the progress not of mankind's material existence, but of humanity's spiritual development. Concomitantly, Hegel presented a developmental theory of how the human spirit progresses: through the dialectic of synthesis and antithesis. Marx's theory of dialectic materialism is essential to his general concept of history: that the struggle to dominate the means of production governs all historical development.



Basic ideas of universal history are so prevalent that they are difficult to separate from basic Western assumptions of how the world is or should be. Outside some intellectuals, such ideas continue to predominate as core assumptions. The teleological aspects of universal history remain entrenched. Many people believe that the events of our world, and more specifically, the events within the human community, are directed toward an end or tending toward an end of some sort. 'Linear' pre-suppositions of the theory are no less prevalent. Most people living in Western cultures conceive of time, and therefore of history, as a line or an arrow, that is proceeding from past to future, toward some end. The idea that time may be cyclical, or that there is no fundamental "end" to the human struggle, is unfamiliar.

The roots of historiography in the nineteenth century are bound up with the concept that history written with a strong connection to the primary sources could, somehow, be integrated with "the big picture", i.e. to a general, universal history. For example, Leopold Von Ranke, probably the pre-eminent historian of the nineteenth century, founder of "Rankean positivism," the classic mode of historiography that now stands against postmodernism, attempted to write a Universal History at the close of his career. The work of Oswald Spengler and Arnold J. Toynbee are two examples of attempts to integrate primary source-based history and Universal History. Spengler's work is more general; Toynbee created a theory that would allow the study of "civilizations" to proceed with integration of source-based history writing and Universal History writing. Both writers attempted to incorporate teleological theories into general presentations of the history.



III. Study the given below lexical units (provide the Ukrainian variant):

§ an influence on the rise of Christianity;

§ manifest in every event that takes place;

§ to be governed by certain basic characteristics;

§ a developmental theory of how the human spirit progresses;

§ with a strong connection to the primary sources;

§ attempts to integrate primary source-based history and Universal History

IV. Give synonyms to the underlined words:

¨ to incorporate theory;

¨ universal history;

¨ coherent unit;

¨ comprehensive account;

¨ primary example;

¨ the Bible posits;

¨ to flow into the story;

¨ limitless future;

¨ essential characteristics;

¨ core assumptions;

¨ immutable principles;

¨ pre-eminent historian;

¨ universal principle

V. Find English equivalents for the following:

- викладення історії людства як єдиного, чіткого елементу;

- оцінка людства від створення до смерті Моісея;

- обумовити вплив;

- впливати на кожну людину та кожне покоління з моменту Воскресіння;

- припущення теорії;

- ідея циклічності часу;

- міцний зв’язок із основними джерелами;

- теорія розвитку людського духу;

- припущення того, яким має бути світ

VI. Interpret the following in English:

· to give comprehensive accounts;

· wellspring of the tradition;

· a primary example of such a history;

· to incorporate teleological theories;

· living in Western cultures conceive of time;

· teleological aspects of universal history remain entrenched;

· basic characteristics or immutable principles;

· theories of history that shared essential characteristics;

· universal history in this vein

 

VII. Select endings for the given statements to develop the idea:

v Universal history is basic to …

v Universal history is the presentation of …

v The first universal history was written by …

v The first five books of the Bible constitute a …

v The destiny of all mankind is governed by …

v An early European project was …

v Hegel presented the idea that …

v Basic ideas of universal history are so prevalent that …

v Many people believe that …

v The roots of historiography in the nineteenth century are bound up with …

 

VIII. – Match the historical terms listed up in column A with the definitions provided in column B.

A B
Christianity the collection of writings consisting of the Gospels, Acts of the Apostles, Pauline and other Epistles, and the book of Revelation, composed soon after Christ's death and added to the Jewish writings of the Old Testament to make up the Christian Bible;
the Bible the sole Supreme Being, eternal, spiritual, and transcendent, who is the Creator and ruler of all and is infinite in all attributes; the object of worship in monotheistic religions;
Moses the sacred writings of the Christian religion, comprising the Old and New Testaments and, in the Roman Catholic Church, the Apocrypha;
New Testament the Christian religion;
God the Hebrew prophet who led the Israelites out of Egypt to the Promised Land and gave them divinely revealed laws;
Pentateuch the first five books of the Old Testament regarded as a unit

– Exemplify the use of the lexis listed up in column A and make the sentences of your own.


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