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III. Look through the text and write out the key historical terms.
IV. Find English equivalents of those expressions in the text:
¨ зосереджуватися на викладі події окремими людьми;
¨ виявляти різноманітність людського досвіду;
¨ висувати на передній план відмінності різних культур;
¨ матеріальна та духовна еволюція людства;
¨ сприяти розвитку зростаючій різноманітності ремесел;
¨ сповістити про початок;
¨ зростати в геометричній прогресії;
¨ планета з вичерпаними ресурсами;
¨ останні одержані данні;
¨ вийти за межі спеціалізованих та замкнутих галузей;
¨ широкомасштабні зразки та теми
V.Give Ukrainian equivalents of those expressions in the text:
- to look for common patterns;
- accelerated globalization;
- to herald the advent;
- to create the infrastructure for lasting, accurately transmitted memories;
- to give rise to permanent settled communities;
- to centre about life-sustaining bodies of water;
- to revolutionize communication;
- to usher in modern times;
- to grasp history as a whole;
- to provide perspective of time scales
VI. Give synonyms to the underlined words:
· two major focal points;
· to draw people of the world together;
· at a handful of universities;
· programs in World History have proliferated;
· to comprise epochs in evolution of humankind;
· in the wake of the Agricultural Revolution;
· to foster a growing diversity of trades;
· to coalesce into ever larger units;
· all time scales
VII. Interpret the following in English:
§ thematic approach;
§ the diversity of the human experience;
§ diffusion and growth of knowledge;
§ scattered habitations;
§ the process of coalescence;
§ rivalries and conflicts between adjacent communities;
§ to help end the Middle Ages;
§ to spark into existence;
§ the alteration and adaptations in the human experience;
§ a multi-disciplinary approach;
§ to leave out the vast majority of history
VIII. Find in the text a word or phrase that means:
Ø a gradual process by whiсh new things are added and smth gradually changes or gets bigger;
Ø a very large and important development or improvement;
Ø an important change in which the usual way of thinking or doing smth is replaced by another way of thinking or doing;
Ø a country which has very great economic, military and political strength;
Ø the period of time in Europe between 14th and 17th centuries, when art, literature, philosophy and scientific ideas became very important and a lot of new art was produced;
Ø the period in the 18th and 19th centuries in Europe and the USA when machines were invented and the first factories were established;
Ø the period of time during which you expect or agree that something will happen or be done;
Ø the scientific study of climate;
Ø a theory that suggests that the universe was created as a result of a massive explosion
IX. Agree or disagree with the following statements:
v World History examines history from a global perspective; it seeks out common patterns that emerge across all cultures.
v Emerging in the early 20 century World History focuses on narratives of individuals, and on national and ethnic perspectives.
v World historians use a thematic approach, with two major focal points: integration (how patterns of world history reveal the diversity of the human experience) and difference (how processes of world history have drawn people of the world together).
v The history of the world is human history from the first appearance of Homo sapiens to the present.
v Prehistory began with the invention of writing.
v The invention of modern printing, employing movable type ushered in the European Renaissance and the Scientific Revolution.
v Big History is a discrete field of historical study that arose in the late 1980's.
v The first book in Big History was published in 1996 by Fred Spier entitled, The Structure of Big History: From the Big Bang until Today, which explores history from the first micro-seconds of the Big Bang, to the creation of the solar system, to the origins of life on earth, the evolution of humans, the agricultural revolution, modernity, and the 20th century.
X. Questions to be answered:
1. What kind of discipline is World History?
2. How does it differ from most history writings of the 19th and 20th centuries?
3. What are two major points of World History thematic approach?
4. Is human history marked by revolutions or discoveries?
5. What was the basis for diffusion and growth of knowledge?
6. When had writing been made necessary?
7. What signaled the beginning and end of every epoch? Give examples.
8. What does Big History arise from?
9. What fields of knowledge are connected with Big History? Which discipline is closer to it?
XI. Explain the difference between:
· World History and Big History;
· Big History and History of the World.
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