4. Infinitive Past Indefinite Past Participle
  6. The Absolute Participle Construction
  7. The Participles
  9. (The Participles)

1. Arrange the words under the lines into sentences. Add necessary words.

Woman: easy/ be honest/isn't/. - I/begin/don't/know how/. - don't want/hurt you/I/. - afraid/say this/I'm/.

" No, no! tell you/is/wrong/. - not/better/know/it's.

Man: But impossible/go on this way/is/. - any longer/wait/refuse/I/. - find out/ intend/I/!


2. Write to or X (no word) in each blank.

Woman: Oh, darling, you must______________believe me! I could never_________love anyone else but you. Man: Linda, I'm sorry ______ have _____ say this, but I can't ______ believe you any more. You used ____ be here ._____ in my arms _______ every night. Now I'm lucky ______ see you once a week. I drove around all night_____find ou I must______know the truth! I'll______do anything know! W.: What are you trying _________ say? You don't really

_________think that I'm seeing another man, do you? M.: I don't ________ know any more. I'm too confused ______think. I just needed______know ... W.: It ... it's hard______tell you this, but ... Are you ready ______ hear everything? You'd better ______ sit down. There's so much_______say ...


3. Complete the following sentences with the past simple or the present perfect of the infinitives given in brackets.

A. 1. You (to read) "Oliver Twist"? 2. You (to read) it last year? 3. Peter already (to leave) 4. He (to leave) an hour ago.. 5. Mother (to buy) a new bag. 6. She (to buy) it the other day.

7. We (to cross) the bridge early this morning 8. We never (to cross) it before 9. You (to find) it? 10. When you (to find) the key? 11. I (to hear) these records. 12. I (to hear) them last year.

B. 1. The artist (to draw) lots of pictures last year. 2. They (not to plant) the young apple-tree yet. 3. What he (to say) when you told him about our success? 4. You (to meet) them last week?. 5. He already (to finish) his homework. 6. Tom (see) us at the theatre the other day. 7. You (to be) here since autumn? 8. Ruta (to show) good results in her work 9. She (to work) here for three years. 10. The boys often (to play) together when they were small. 11. Comrade Ozols (to teach) you chemistry last year? 12. He never (to tell) us stories. 13. Aina already (to come)? 14. We (to post) several letters today. 15. Tom (to bring) some interesting photographs last time.

C. 1. Harry (to make) a rocket model. 2. When I (to go) to the seaside I (to take) the newspapers with me. 3. You ever (to draw) a watercolour? 4. Mother already (to hear) the latest news? 5. They (to sing) any English songs at the party last Saturday? 6. I hope you (to get) the tickets. 7. Our penfriends (not to write) to us since last month 8. You (to feel) like that before! 9. We (not to go) to the cinema yesterday. 10. We (to listen) to everything Father said at breakfast. 11. He (not to eat) anything since morning. 12. You (to know) each other long? 13. If you (to do) everything, you will be allowed to go. 14. They (to build) that house last year? 15. We (to pay) the rent this month.


4Use the present perfect instead of the past simple, changing the adverbial modifiers accordingly.

I. Did Andris Roze become a doctor in 1969? 2. Three months ago Tom went to work in a laboratory. 3. We heard the broadcast the other day 4. I saw Helen walking to the bank the day before. 5. Ivan graduated from the institute five years ago. 6. She tidied her room this morning. 7. Martin put on his blue sweater when he went skiing 8. I didn't buy any sweets yesterday.


5. Use the correct form of the verb in parentheses in each of the following sentences.

1. The teacher made Juan_________(leave) the room. 2. Toshiko had her car__________(repair) by a mechanic. 3. Ellen got Maria--------------(type) her paper.

4. I made Jane________(call) her friend on the telephone. 5. We got our house_______(paint) last week. 6. Dr. Byrol is having the students _______ (write) a composition. 7. The policeman made the suspect _________ (lie) on the ground. 8. Mark got his transcripts __________ (send) to the university. 9. Marie is getting her hair_______(cut) tomorrow. 10. We will have to get the Dean_____(sign) this form. II. The teacher let Al_____(leave) the classroom.

12. Maria got Ed_______(wash) the pipettes. 13. She always has her car____(fix) by the same mechanic. 14. Gene got his book ________ (publish) by a subsidiary publisher. 15. We have to help Janet____________(find) her keys.


6. Put in the correct forms of the verbs.


When we were at school as children we were (make)/wear) indoor shoes inside the school building. The teachers would never (let us/wear) ... our outdoor shoes at all and they (make us/change) ... in the changing rooms from the moment we entered the building. I'd never known teachers (be) ... more strict about any other school rule. The trouble was that my indoor shoes really (make me/suffer)... because they were so tight. ("Let/expand) ... our shoes!" a fellow sufferer suggested. He had had a brilliant idea. We put plastic bags inside our shoes and poured water into the bags. We sealed the bags carefully and put our shoes into the freezer. Of course the ice (make the shoes/expand) ... and they were a pleasure to wear. This clever idea (help me/get) ... through my schooldays with less discomfort and I have never forgotten it.


7. Join or rewrite the sentences below using the words given.

1. I found this book. The librarian helped me. The librarian ............... 2. I have to fill in this job application form. Can you help me? Can you ............ 3. You mustn't worry so much. I can help you. I can help ............ 4. People know him to be a very generous man. He ............ 5. He's a ruthless businessman. He is known for that. He's known............ 6. She's never on time. I've never known .........


8. Insert to where necessary before the infinitives in brackets.

1. He made me (do) it all over again. 2. She can (sing) quite well. 3. He will be able (swim) very soon. 4. I used (live) in a caravan. 5. You ought (go) today. It may (rain) tomorrow. 6. You needn't (say) anything. Just nod your head and he will (understand). 7. I want (see) the house where our president was born. 8. He made her (repeat) the message. 9. May I (use) your phone? 10. You needn't (ask) for permission; you can (use) it whenever you like. 11. If you want (get) there before dark you should (start) at once. 12. I couldn't (remember) his address.

13. You'll be able (do) it yourself when you are older. 14. Would you like (go) now or shall we (wait) till the end? 15. They won't let us (leave) the Customs shed till our luggage has been examined. 16. How dare you (open) my letters! 17. He didn't dare (argue) with his boss. 18. I used (smoke) forty cigarettes a day. 19. Will you help me (move) the bookcase? 20. He wouldn't let my baby (play) with his gold watch. 21. They refused (accept) the bribe. 22. He is expected (arrive) in a few days. 23. Please let me (know) your decision as soon as possible.

24. He made us (wait) for hours. 25. Could you (tell) me the time, please? 26. We must (send) him a telegram. 27. I let him (go) early as he wanted (meet) his wife. 28. Where would you like (have) lunch? 29. You can (leave) your dog with us if you don't (want) (take) him with you.

30. I'd like him (go) to a university but I can't (make) him (go). 31. We could (go) to a concert, unless you'd prefer (visit) a museum. 32. You seem (know) this area very well.~ Yes, I used ( live) here. 33. The kidnappers told the parents (not inform) the police, and the parents didn't dare (disobey). 34. Need I (come)? I'd much rather (stay) at home. 35. You can (take) a horse to water but you can't (make) him (drink), (proverty) 36. I'm sorry (disappoint) you but I can't (let) you (have) any more money till the end of the mont .


9. Insert to where necessary before the infinitives in brackets. (In some of the sentences a present participle could be used instead of an infinitive. These alternatives will be noted in the key.)

1. It is easy (be) wise after the event. 2. Do you (wish) (make) a complaint? 3. We don't (want) anybody (know) that we are here. 4 If you can't (remember) his number you'd better (look) it up

5 I want her (learn) Esperanto, I think everybody ought to (know) it. 6. He is said (be) the best surgeon in the country. 7. Visitors are asked (not feed) the animals. 8. Could I (see) Mr Pitt, please?- I'm afraid Mr Pitt isn't in. Would you like (speak) to his secretary? 9. It's better (travel) hopefully than (arrive), (proverb) 10. He should (know) how (use) the film projector, but if he doesn't you had better (show) him. 11. He was made (sign) a paper admitting his guilt. 12. I heard the door (open) and saw a shadow (move) across the floor. 13. He tried (make) me (believe) that he was my stepbrother 14. As we seem (have missed) the train we may as well (go) back to the house. 15 I felt the house (shake) with the explosion. 16. He told me (try) (come) early. 17. Before he let us (go) he made us (promise) (not tell) anyone what we had seen. 18. Would you (like) (come) in my car? ~ No, thanks, I'd rather (walk). 19. I advised him (ask) the bus conductor (tell) him where (get) off. 20. It is better (put) your money in a bank than (keep) it under your bed in an old stocking. 21. He doesn't even bother (read) letters, let alone (answei) them. 22. The bank robbers made the cashier (show) them ho\\ (open) the safe. 23. If you knew he was wrong, why didn't you (say) something? ~ I didn't like (say) anything because he always gets angry i you contradict him. 24. It's better (be) sure than sorry. 25. What do you (want) me (tell) him? ~ Tell him that any time he cares (call) I shall be delightet (discuss) the matter with him. 26. Did you remember (give) him the money? ~ No, I didn't, I still have it in my pocket; but I'll (see) him tonight and I promise (not forget) this time.

27. I saw the driver (open) his window and (throw) a box into the bushes. 28. That is far too heavy for one person (carry); let me (help) you. 29. I was afraid (pick) up the revolver as I don't know how (handle) firearms. 30. I saw the plane (crash) into the hill and (burst) into flames.

31. There is nothing (do) but (wait) till somebody comes (let) us out. 32. He heard a rooster (crow) in a neighbouring village. 33. You may as well (tell) us the truth. It will (be) easy (check) your story 34. The American said he had seen nine presidents (come) and (go). ~ He must (be) a very old man. 35. It is up to you (learn) the laws of your own country. 36. Would you rather (be) more stupid than you look or (look) more stupid than you are?


10. In each of the following pairs of sentences an infinitive used in the first sentence is repeated in the second. Read the sentences, expressing this second infinitive by to only. Note that where the second infinitive has an object, this word/phrase must be omitted.

Why didn't you tell me truth the first time? ~ I meant to tell you the truth but I was too frightened.

I meant to but I was too frightened.

1. Did you visit the Pyramids? ~ No, I wanted to visit them but there wasn't time. 2. Why do you wear dark glasses? ~ I have to wear them; I have weak eyes. 3. Do you smoke? ~ No, I used to smoke but I don't now. 4. Would you like to go to the theatre tonight? Yes, I'd love to go to the theatre. 5. Why didn't you pay the bill for him? ~ I offered to pay it but he refused. 6. Have you put the car in the garage? ~ No, but I'm just going to put it there. 7. I want you two to apologize to each other. ~ Well, I am willing to apologize if he apologizes first. 8. Did you reserve seats on the train? ~ No, I tried to reserve them but they had all been booked already. 9. Did you answer the letter? ~ No, I intended to answer it but I'm afraid I forgot. 10. Why didn't you hit him? I was afraid to hit him. 11. I'd love to spend a night in a haunted room. ~ I'd hate to spend a night in a haunted room. 12. Why didn't you ask your father for the money? ~ I didn't like to ask him. 13. Did you get a chance to fly the aeroplane yourself? ~ No, I wanted to fly it but the pilot wouldn't let me. 14. Why doesn't he punish his boys when they disobey him? ~ He often threatens to punish them but he never actually does so 15. Why didn't he repair the car himself? ~ He wasn't able to repair it. 16. I used to drink whisky with my meals. ~ I used to drink whisky with my meals also but I don't now. 17. Did you buy sausages? ~ No, I meant to buy them but I forgot. 18. Why doesn't he try again? ~ He doesn't want to try again. 19. You should visit the Prado when you are in Madrid. ~ Yes, I intend to visit it. 20. Why doesn't he play games? ~

His mother doesn't want him to play games. 21. You ought to stop work now. ~ Yes, I am just going to stop. 22. Why do some jockeys carry extra weights? ~ They are obliged to carry them by the regulations. 23. Did he help you? ~ No, I asked him to help me but he said he hadn't time. 24. You should have thanked her before you left. ~ I meant to thank her but when I was going I couldn't find her anywhere. 25. Why did she put parsley in the soup? ~ I told her to put it in. 26. Why didn't he report it to the police? ~ He was afraid to report it. He didn't think they'd believe him. 27. Why did he drive so fast? ~ He had to drive fast; otherwise he'd have missed his train. 28. You used to like rice pudding. ~ Yes, I know I used to like it but I don't now. 29. Why didn't you buy the car? ~ I was advised not to buy it. 30. I hope the children won't go near the water. ~ I warned them not to go near it. 31. Why are we trying to get planning permission? ~ We have to get planning permission. It is the law. 32. I meant to work hard. ~ I know you meant to work hard but you didn't. 33. Do the boys tidy their own rooms? ~ They are supposed to tidy them but they don't always. 34. Why didn't he call the police? ~ He wasn't able to call them. His telephone line had been cut. 35. Why did you move your car? ~ The policeman told me to move it. 36. Why did you bring your mother-in-law? I particularly asked you not to bring her.


11. Combine each of the following pairs of sentences into one sentence using tool enough with infinitive.

It is very cold. We can't go out. It is too cold for us to go out. He is strong. He can carry it.

He is strong enough to carry it.

Rewrite numbers 3, 20, and 35 using so ... as with infinitive. (enough with infinitive could also be used here, while so ... as could replace enough in numbers 9, 24, and 29. These alternatives are given in the key.)

1. You are very young. You can't have a front-door key. 2. It is very cold. We can't bathe. 3. Would you be very kind and answer this letter by return? 4. I am rather old. I can't wear that kind of hat. 5. The ladder wasn't very long. It didn't reach the window. 6. He hadn't much money. He couldn't live on it. (Omit it.) 7. He was furious. He couldn't speak. 8. The fire isn't very hot. It won't boil a kettle. 9. Tom was very foolish. He told lies to the police. 10. You are quite thin. You could slip between the bars. 11. He is very ill. He can't eat anything. 12. Our new car is very wide. It won't get through those gates. 13. The floor wasn't strong. We couldn't dance on it. (Omit it.) 14. I was terrified. I couldn't move. 15. The bull isn't big. He couldn't harm you. 16. The coffee isn't strong. It won't keep us awake. 17. The river is deep. We can't wade it (Omit it.) 18. He is lazy. He won't get up early. 19. He won't get up early so he never catches the fast train. 20. Would you be very good and forward my letters while I am away? 21. The ice is quite thick. We can walk on it. (Omit it.) 22. He was very drunk. He couldn't answer my question. 23. It is very cold. We can't have breakfast in the garden. 24. He was extremely rash. He set off up the mountain in a thick fog. 25. We aren't very high. We can't see the summit.

26. You aren't very old. You can't understand these things. 27. He was very snobbish. He wouldn't talk to any of us. 28. The package is very thick. I can't push it through the letterbox. (Omit it.) 29. She was very mean. She never gave to charity. 30. He is very impatient. He never listens to anyone. 31. I was very tired. I couldn't walk any further. 32. It's not very dark. We can't see the stars clearly. 33. It was very hot. You could fry an egg on the pavement.

34. The oranges were very bitter. We couldn't eat them. (Omit them.) 35. Would you be very kind and turn down the radio a little? 36. He is very selfish. He wouldn't put himself out for anyone.


12. Replace the group of words in italics by an infinitive or an infinitive construction.

It is important that he should understand this. It is important for him to understand this. He was the first man who arrived. He was the first man to arrive.

1. The captain was the last man who left the ship. 2. He got to the top and was very disappointed when he found that someone else had reached it first. 3. The committee have decided to send you to Paris. (You (go) to Paris, omit The committee have decided to send.)

4. Would you be very kind and lend me your umbrella? 5. There are a lot of sheets that need mending. 6. I was astonished when I heard that he had left the country. 7. It is better that he should hear it from you. 8. I was rude to him, which was stupid. (It was stupid ...) 9. If he had another child with whom he could play he would be happier. 10. It is necessary that everyone should know the truth. 11. There was no place where we could sit. 12. He put his hand into his pocket and was astonished when he found that his wallet wasn't there. 13. He rushed into the burning house, which was very brave of him. (It was very brave ...) 14. I can't go to the party; I have nothing that I can wear. 15. // is expected that he will broadcast a statement tonight. (He is expected ...) 16. I want a kitchen where (=in which) I can cook. 17. He reached the station exhausted and was very disappointed when he learnt that the train had just left.

18. Haven't you anything with which you could open it? 19. It seems that the crime was committed by a left-handed man (The crime seems ... Use perfect infinitive passive.)

20. Is it likely that he will arrive before six? (Is he ...) 21. I was on the point of leaving the house when the phone rang. 22. This is the plan: someone will meet you at the station ... (You .. (be met) at the station) 23. She is anxious that they should have every possible advantage.

24. It is said that he was a brilliant scientist. (He is said ...) 25. The strikers decided that the strike should continue. 26. Would you be very kind and translate this for me? 27. It is advisable that we should leave the house separately. 28. You signed the document without reading it, which was very stupid. (It was stupid ...) 29. It is said that she has a frightful temper. (She...)

30. He was the first man who swam the Channel. 31. They believe that he is honest. (He ...)

32. It appears that he was killed with a blunt instrument. (He appears ... Use passive infinitive.)

33. He was the only one who realized the danger. 34. It is said that the earth was originally part of the sun. (The earth ...) 35. He took out his spare wheel and was very disappointed when he discovered that that tyre was also punctured. 36. It is said that the murderer is hiding in the woods near your house.


13. Use the perfect infinitive of the verb in italics with the appropriate auxiliary verb. Phrases in bold type should not be repeated, but their meaning should be expressed by the auxiliary + perfect infinitive.

It is possible that he telephoned while we were out. He may have telephoned while we were out.

You (thank) him for his present but you didn't. You should have thanked him for his present.

1. I realized that my house was on fire.~ That (be) a terrible moment. 2. I saw a ghost last night. ~ You (not see) a ghost; there aren't any ghosts. You (dream) it. 3. It is possible that a child broke the window. 4. You carried it yourself, which was not necessary. , 5. I've had a toothache for two days. ~ You (go) to the dentist when it started. 6. There (be) motor-cycle races on the sands but as it is so wet they have been cancelled. 7. As I was standing in the hall your dog bit me. ~ It (not be) my dog; he was with me all day. It (be) my brother's dog. 8. I feel terribly ill today. ~ You (not eat) those mushrooms yesterday. Mushrooms don't agree with you. 9. I wonder why he didn't answer? ~ Possibly he didn't understand the question. 10. I gave him a tip, which was not necessary. 11. The prisoner (escape) this way, for here are his footprints. 12. You lied to him, which was wrong. 13. I didn't recognize the voice at the other end of the line. ~ It (be) my elder sister; she is often at home at that time. It

(not be) my youngest sister as she is abroad. 14. Someone (cook) a meal here lately; the stove is still hot. 15. I've brought my own sandwiches. ~ You (not bring) them. I have enough for two.

16. The burglar went straight to the safe although It was hidden behind a picture. ~ Someone (tell) him where it was. 17. The president (unveil) the statue, but he is ill so his wife is doing it instead. 18. The plane is late; I wonder what has happened? ~ Possibly it was delayed by fog.

19. I have never met him. ~ You (meet) him; he lives next door to you. 20. I (do) it. (It was my duty to do it, but I didn't.) 21. He (not catch) the 9.20 train because he didn't leave home till 9.25. 22. I opened it, which was unnecessary. 23. The police were here while we were out. ~ Someone (betray) us. 24. I drove at 80 miles an hour, which was wrong. 25. When I was your age I (climb) that mountain, (but I didn't). 26. If a policeman had seen me climbing through your window he (ask) me what I was doing. 27. He said that censorship of news was ridiculous and it (abolish) years ago. (passive verb) 28. You boiled so many eggs; but there are only four of us. 29. She (play) the chief part in the film, but she quarrelled with the director, so he engaged someone else. 30. This poem (be) written by Keats, but I am not certain. 31. He (take) off his hat in the theatre, (but he didn't). 32. People used to walk twenty miles to do their shopping. ~ They (have) a lot of energy in those days. 33. One day he went for a walk up a mountain and never came back. ~ He (fall) over a precipice. 34. I just pressed lightly on the pane and my hand went through. ~ The glass (be) very thin. 35. You translated it into French, which wasn't necessary. 36. You looked at the new moon through glass. It is most unlucky.


14. Instructions: as for exercise 13, but where two verbs in italics are placed side by side, put the second verb into the perfect infinitive and the first into an appropriate tense.

This palace (say) (build) in three years.

This palace is said to have been built in three years.

1. She (marry) my brother but she was killed in a plane crash a month before the wedding date. 2. You repeated it, which was unnecessary. 3. There (seem) (be) a fight here. Everything is smashed to bits. 4. We (set) out today, but the weather is so bad that we decided to postpone our start till tomorrow. 5. I thought they were mushrooms. ~ You (not eat) them unless you were sure. They (be) poisonous. 6. He learnt the language in six months. ~ He (work) very hard. 7. I brought my umbrella, which was unnecessary. 8. I (like) (bathe) but there wasn't time. 9. I've forgotten the address. I (write) it down (but I didn't). 10. If I'd known your house was so cold I (not come). 11. You (tell) me you were going camping! If I'd known I (go) with you. ~ But it rained all the time. You (not like) that, would you? 12. Who gave you my address? ~ I don't remember. It (be) Tom. ~ It (not be) Tom; he doesn't know it. 13. You bought flowers but we have plenty in the garden. 14. After two years of his teaching she knew absolutely nothing. ~ He (not be) a good teacher. 15. My sister has just come back from abroad. She (seem) (enjoy) her trip very much. 16. Life (be) very uncomfortable in the Stone Age. 17. You (stand) still when you were being photographed, (but you didn't). 18. I (go) to a foreign university but the war prevented it. 19. I (like) (photograph) it but I had no more film.

20. There (be) a bad accident here. Look at all the broken glass. 21. It is possible that prehistoric cave drawings were connected with religion. 22. I have been driving for 20 years. ~

You (not drive) for 20 years. You are only 30 now. 23. It (take) years to dig the Suez Canal.

24. He walked past me without speaking. ~ He (not recognize) you. He is very short-sighted.

25. I (like) (go) to the match but the tickets were all sold. 26. He says he saw you at the theatre yesterday. ~ He (not see) me. I wasn't there. 27. This picture may be a fake; on the other hand it (be) painted by one of the Dutch masters. 28. It is possible that the fire in the ship was started by a bomb. 29. She walked 300 miles, carrying her child. ~ She (have) great courage.

30. It is possible that he (read) it in papers. ~ He (not read) it. He can't read. Someone (tell) him. 31. I told them to meet me under the clock but they didn't turn up. Perhaps they were waiting under the wrong clock. There are two in the station. 32. He told me his name was Johnson. ~ You (mishear) him. His name is Jones. 33. I said that I couldn't find my pen and he said that perhaps somebody had borrowed it. 34. I (like) (ask) a question but I was sitting so far back that I didn't think I'd be heard. 35. There (be) a fort here at one time. You can see where the foundations were. 36. The dinosaur (be said) (be) rather a stupid animal.


15. Fill in the blanks using gerund and prepositions.

1. Alice isn't interested in (look)__________for a new job. 2. Henry is excited (leave)______________for India. 3. You are capable (do)_________________a better job.

4. I have no excuse (be)_________late. 5. I'm accustomed (have)__________a big breakfast.

6. The rain prevented us (complete)________the work. 7. Fred is always complaining (have)_______a headache. 8. Instead (study) _______, Margaret went to a ball game with some of her friends. 9. Thank you (help)_______me carry the packages to the post office.

10. Mrs Grant insisted (know)_______the whole truth. 11. He showed us how to get to his house (draw)________ a map. 12. You should take advantage (go, not)_____to class yesterday. 13. Everyone in the neighbourhood participated (look) ____ for the lost child.

14. I apologized to Diane (make)________her wait for me. 15. The weather is terrible tonight. I don't blame you (want, not)__________to go to the meeting 16. Who is responsible (wash) ________ and (dry) ______ the dishes after dinner? 17. In addition (go) ________ school full time, Sam has a part-time job. 18. The angry look on his face stopped me (speak) _______

my mind. 19. Where should we go for dinner tonight? Would you object (go)____________to an Italian restaurant? 20. The mayor made another public statement for the purpose (clarify)___________the new tax proposal. 21. The thief was accused (steal) ____________ a woman's purse. 22. The jury found Mr. Adams guilty (take) _________ money from the company he worked for and (keep) __________ it for himself. 23. Bill isn't used (wear)__________a suit tie every day.


16. Finish the sentences.

1. Ken went to bed instead of finishing his work, (finish). 2. I thanked her________(lend).

3. I'm excited_________(go). 4. I'm not accustomed__________(live). 5. He didn't feel well. He complained_______(have). 6. I don't blame you__________(want, not). 7. I have a good reason_______(be). 8. It's getting late. I'm worried______(miss). 9. I'm interested_____(go).

10. I apologized to my friend______________(be). 11. I am/am not used________________(drive). 12. Nothing can stop me____________________(go).

13. In that office, who is responsible_____________(take care of).

17. Finish the sentences using by+gerund phrase.

1. Pat turned off the tape recorder________. 2. We show people we are happy__________

3. We decided who should get the last piece of pie________ 4. I found out what "quench" means____ 5. Tony improved his listening comprehension skills 6. Alex caught my attention_________ 7. They got rid of the rats in the building___ 8. My dog shows me she is happy____ 9. He accidentally electrocuted himself_____.


18. Make up sentences using gerund.

1. I'm tired-discuss-

grades with my friend because talk-grades-be boring

2. Sometimes pupils don't

like-go-school they-afraid-write-a test

3. I don't think-copy-

your homework from there-danger-copy-

a friend-always-good idea something wrong

4. Some pupils don't enjoy-

play-football they hate-run-after a ball

5. I've started-learn-ano-

ther foreign language speak-several languages-



19. Complete the sentences with gerund

1. The night after Brucel's concert, Maureen (dream/go) to another concert at the Garden.

2. It upsets Mr Mitchell when Marvin (talk/drop) out of school.

3. Some of Ellrod's friends aren't very good at school, but they (be good/play) music and basketball. 4. At the beginning Tommy was so confident that he (not think/apologize) to Deblie.

5. After the chieftains had won some games again, Steve (be proud/be) captain.

6. Long before the Europeans came to America, many Indian tribes (be good/farm) the land.


20. Write the verb phrase in the appropriate tense putting the two verbs in parentheses in correct order, include gerund.

Martin was pleased when his American friend, Keith, invited him to a dinner party on Friday night. Immediately, he _____ (plan, begin) for the party. He_______(bring, like) gifts to people, so he asked his roommate Kevin, for suggestion. Kevin _________ (take, suggest) a bottle of wine. But Martin didn't drink wine, so he bought Keith a new stereocassette player for his car. Kevin_______(advise, wear) casual clothes to the party, but Martin________(prefer, wear) his best suit & tie. When Friday night arrived, Martin__________(start, get).


21. Complete the sentences with the missing particles or . ' prepositions and gerund. Choose from these verbs:

get, take, be, send, try, give, buy, do.

It is February 14. Michael has received flowers. The card says "From a Secret Admirer."

M.: (to himself) Red roses! There're beautiful! I bet they're from Janet. It's so nice of her to think_____________________ flowers on Valentine's Day. I'll call her. (He dials Janet's number. The phone rings.)

I.: Hello.

M.: Hi, Janet. It's Mike. I just wanted to thank you_______ so romantic. I've often dreamed _______________ roses from a woman. I can always count_____your_______something nice.

I.: Roses? I ... uh ... don't believe_______men gifts. I object ___________women_________the first step in a relationship. (She hangs up.)

M.: (to himself) Hmmm ... she doesn't admit _________the flowers. Then who sent them? I can't give____to find out. (He dials the phone. A woman answers it.)

M.: Hello, Betty. It's Mike. I just wanted to thank you for the flowers......


22. Complete the sentences with the missing preposition and gerunds. Use the verb in parentheses.

Children are always happy___________ (celebrate) holidays, but most American children get specially excited _______ (get) ready for Halloween. Every year in October, children, who usually hate to go to the market begin to get interested ________ (shop). They are eager to pick out a costume and a pumpkin. Adults who are good ____________ (carve) pumpkins cut happy or sad faces in them. With lighted candles in them, the pumpkins become Jack - O' - lanterns, symbols of Halloween. g On October 31, children go trick or treating. They clever seem to get tired______(run) from house to house to fill their bags with candy. Little children are sometimes afraid ______(go) out on Halloween because of the ghosts and monsters on the streets. Their parents are often worried_____(save)

their children's teeth from all those sweets.


23. Complete the sentences with the gerund form of a suitable verb.

1. The newspaper's financial editor advised his reader not to buy speculative snares unless they were prepared to risk ... their money. 2. This room will look very cheerful once you're finished ... it 3. I wish you wouldn't keep ... me what I already know all too well. 4. It is difficult to see how the company can avoid ... another loss this year. 5. It was so ridiculous that I couldn't resist ... outright. 6. The secretary asked if I would mind ... for a few minutes.

7. The way to learn a language is to practise ... it as often as possible. 8. Everyone said how much they had enjoyed ... to the speech. 9. When you've finished the book you can tell me if it's worth ... 10. He was very lucky to escape ... (passive) to prison. 11. You should stop ... about the examinations. 12. She was so upset that she couldn't help ... 13. The job will entail your ... to different parts of the country, often at short notice. 14. The teacher said he wouldn't tolerate my ... late every day. 15. The question is so trivial, it hardly justifies our ... up any more time discussing it.


24. Complete the sentences using the gerund form of a suitable verb. To functions as a preposition in every case. Note that the "perfect" form is required in some sentences.

1. The Prime Minister said he was looking forward to ... the US President. 2. He should be accustomed by now to ... English food 3. The policeman couldn't swear to ... the accused man at the scene of the crime. 4. Do you think your father would object to ... ? 5. He said he wasn't used to ... in public. 6. Having almost run out of money we were reduced to ... in a cheap hotel. 7. He tried to limit himself to ... ten cigarettes a day.

8. Manufacturers were asked to devote all their energies to ... exports. 9. We aren't going. My wife doesn't feel like to so far. 10. The committee could see no alternative to ... thee plan in its original form.


25. For each of the following sentences write -another sentence as similar as possible in meaning using the verb in brackets together with a preposition atnd gerund.

1. The customer said that the cashier had tried to overcharge her (accuse). 2. Many people pass their driving test only at the second attempt (succeed). 3. Concert-goes are asked not to smoke in the auditorium (refrain). 4. The solicitor talked his client out of taking leg al action (dissuade). 5. If a customer gets poor service, you can't say it 's wrong of him to make a fuss (blame). 6. The hijackers wouldn't let the passengers leave tthe plane (prevent). 7. The student said he was sorry that he had missed the previous lesson (apologize). 8. Visitors to the Zoo are not allowed to feed the animals (prohibit) 9. Despite my obvious lack of interest the party bone said he had to tell me the rest of his story, (insists). 10. The police think that the owner of the store started the fire himself (suspect).


26. Complete the sentences using gerunds.

1. My doctor advised me to give up ... 2. We had to put off ... 3. That company specializes in ... 4. The judge was accused of ... 5. Many people get a great deal of satisfaction from ... 6. I told him not to bother about ... 7. The teacher decided against ... 8. On ... he took off his hat.

9. We asked a solicitor for advice before ... 10. By ... he ran the risk of ... 11. After ... the customer left the shop without ... 12. By ... the student improved his chances of ...


27. Complete the sentences using gerunds.

1. There are many difficulties involved in ... 2. You must be tired of ... 3. The boy was severely reprimanded for ... 4. The public were warned of the dangers of ... 5. He doesn't take any interest in ... 6. You seem to be very fond of ... 7. The soldier was court - martialled for ...

8. Who is responsible for ...? 9. You ought to think about ..., instead of ... 10. This new scheme goes a long way towards ... 11. I would never think of ... 12. They saw no reason for not ...


28. Put the verbs in brackets into a gerund form.

1. He gave up (gamble). 2. Try to avoid (make) him angry. 3. Stop (argue) and star t (work).

4. The children prefer (watch) TV to (read). 5. I am against (make) any complaints. 6. It's no use (cry) over spilt milk, (proverb) 7. I suggest (hold) another meeting next week. 8. He finished (speak) and sat down.' 9. He was fined for (drive) without lights. 10. It is difficult to get used to (eat) with chopsticks. 11. If you can't turn the key try (put) some oil in the lock. 12. He lost no time in (get) down to work. 13. You can't make an omelette without (break) eggs. (proverb) 14. We are looking forward to (read) your new book. 15. They escaped by (slide) down ropes made of blankets. 16. They don't allow (smoke) in here. 17. He is thinking of (leave) his job and (go) to America. 18. After (read) this article you will give up (smoke). 19. If you put your money into that business you risk (lose) every penny. 20. Imagine (live) with someone who never stops (talk). 21. Is there anything here worth (buy)? 22. He was accused of (leak) information to the press. 23. You'd better consult your lawyer before (decide) to buy the property. 24. I don't enjoy (go) to the dentist. 25. Would you mind (put) your pet snake somewhere else? 26. The hostages were rescued without a shot (be) fired. 27. By (work) day and night he succeeded in (finish) the job in time. 28. He has a scheme for (make) grass grow in winter. 29. I don't feel like (work); what about (go) to a disco instead? 30. Would you mind (write) your name and address on the back of the cheque? 31. If a thing is worth (do) at all it is worth (do) well. (proverb) 32. I hate (borrow) money. 33. He was furious at (be) mistaken for an escaped convict. 34. After (talk) for ten minutes I succeeded in (convince) him that there was no danger. 35. I remember (read) a review of that book and (think) I'd like to get it. 36. As a result of (listen) at keyholes he learnt many facts which he had no hesitation in (use) to his own advantage.


29. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form (gerund or infinitive).

1. I am looking forward to (see) you. 2. He dreads (have) to retire. 3. I arranged (meet) them here. 4. He urged us (work) faster. 5. I wish (see) the manager. 6. It's no use (wait). 7 He warned her (not touch) the wire. 8. Don't forget (lock) the door before (go) to bed. 9. My mother told me (not speak) to anyone about it. 10. I can't understand her (behave) like that. 11. He tried (explain) but she refused (listen). 12. At dinner she annoyed me by (smoke) between the courses. 13. You are expected (know) the safety regulations of the college. 14. He decided (disguise) himself by (dress) as a woman. 15. I am prepared (wait) here all night if necessary. 16. Would you mind (show) me how (work) the lift? 17. After (walk) for three hours we stopped to let the others (catch up) with us. 18. I am beginning (understand) what you mean. 19. He was fined for (exceed) the speed limit. 20. The boys like (play) games but hate (do) lessons. 21. I regret (inform) you that your application has been refused. 22. I couldn't help (overhear) what you said. 23. Mrs Jones: I don't allow (smoke) in my drawing-room. Mrs Smith: I don't allow my family (smoke) at all. 24. He surprised us all by (go) away without (say) "Goodbye". 25. Please go on (write); I don't mind (wait). 26. He wore dark glasses (avoid) (be) recognized. 27. Before (give) evidence you must swear (speak) the truth. 28. I tried (persuade) him (agree) with your proposal. 29. Your windows need (clean); would you like me (do) them for you? 30. Would you mind (shut) the window? I hate (sit) m a draught. 31. I can't help (sneeze): I caught a cold yesterday from (sit) in a draught. 32. Do stop (talk); I am trying (finish) a letter. 33. His doctor advised him (give up) (jog). 34. My watch keeps (stop).-

That's because you keep (forget) (wind) it. 35. Without (realize) it, he hindered us instead of (help) us 36 People used (make) fire by (rub) two sticks together.


30 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form (gerund or infinitive).

1. He hates (answer) the phone, and very often just lets it (ring) 2. If you go on (let) your dog (chase) cars he'll end by (be) run over 3. I prefer (drive) to (be driven). 4. I advise you (start) (look) for a flat at once. 5. Would you mind (lend) me £5? I forgot (cash) a cheque. 6. (Lie) on this beach is much more pleasant than (sit) in the office. 7. She likes her children (go) to the dentist every six months. 8. By (neglect) (take) ordinary precautions he endangered the life of his crew. 9. An instructor is coming (show) us how (use) the aqualung. 10. I have no intention of (go) to that film; I couldn't bear-(see) my favourite actress in such a dreadful part.

11. I suggest (telephone) the hospital before (ask) the police (look) for him. 12. After (hear) the conditions I decided (not enter) for the competition. 13. Some people seem (have) a passion for (write) to the newspapers. 14. He expects me (answer) by return but I have no intention of (reply) at all. 15. I tried (explain) to him but he refused (listen) and went on (grumble). 16. By (offer) enormous wages he is persuading men (leave) their present jobs and (work) for him. 17. He postponed (make) a decision till it was too late (do) anything. 18. Imagine (have) (get up) at five a.m. every day! 19. Try (forget) it; it isn't worth (worry) about. 20. There is no point in (remain) in a dangerous place if you can't do anything (help) the people who have (stay) there. 21. The horse won't be well enough (run) in tomorrow's race. He doesn't seem (have recovered) from his long journey. 10. Sometimes teenagers get into trouble with their parents 22. At first I enjoyed (listen) to him but after a while I got tired of (hear) the same story again and again. 23. It is usually easier (learn) a subject by (read) books than by (listen) to lectures. 24. It wouldn't be safe (start) down now; we'll have (wait) till the mist clears. 25. The police accused him of (set) fire to the building but he denied (have been) in the area on the night of the fire. 26. I left my door open. Why didn't you walk in? ~ I didn't like (go) in when you weren't there. 27. It's much better (go) to a hairdresser than (try) (save) time by (cut) your own hair. 28. I'd rather (earn) my living by (scrub) floors than (make) money by (blackmail) people.

29. After (discuss) the matter for an hour the committee adjourned without (have reached) any decision. 30. It's not much use (have) a bicycle if you don't know how (ride) it. 31. He didn't dare (leave) the house because he was afraid of (meet) someone who might (recognize) him.

32. I distinctly remember (pay) him. I gave him £2. 33. Did you remember (give) him the key of the safe? ~ No, I didn't. I'll go and do it now. 34. Please forgive me for (interrupt) you but would you mind (repeat) that last sentence? 35. I know my hair wants (cut) but I never have time (go) to the hairdresser's. 36. He made a lot of money by (buy) tickets in advance and (sell) them for twice the price on the day of the match. 37. She rushed out the room without (give) me a chance (explain). 38. He keeps (ask) me the time and I keep (tell) him (buy) himself a watch.

39. He has a theory that it is possible (tell) the time in day light by (look) into a cat's eyes. 40. I'd hate (be) beside a volcano when it started (erupt).


31. Put the verbs in brackets into gerund or infinitive.

After like it is sometimes possible to use either gerund or infinitive, but there tends to be a slight difference in implication.

like + gerund usually means "enjoy"; it also usually implies that the action is/was performed:

I like skating = I enjoy skating (and do skate).

like + infinitive has more the meaning of "approve of", "like the idea or habit". In the affirmative it gives no indication as to whether the action is performed or not, and in the negative implies that it is not performed.

I didn't like saying it

usually means "I said it, unwillingly", but

I didn't like to say it

usually means "I didn't say it" (because it didn't seem right or sensible). The distinction, however, is not rigid. The above notes are, therefore, only guides which may safely be followed.

1. I used (ride) a lot but I haven't had a chance (do) any since (come) here. ~ I ride sometimes. Would you like (come) with me next time? 2. Most people prefer (spend) money to (earn) it. 3. I resented (be) unjustly accused and asked him (apologize). 4. It isn't good for children (eat) too many sweets. 5. I didn't feel like (work) so I suggested (spend) 'the day in the garden. 6. Why do you keep (look) back? Are you afraid of (be) followed? 7. Do you remember (post) the letter? ~ Yes, I do; I posted it in the letter-box near my gate. 8. Did you remember (lock) the door? ~ No, I didn't. I'd better (go) back and (do) it now. 9. You still have a lot (learn) if you'll forgive my (say) so. 10. It's no use (try) (interrupt) him. You'll have (wait) till he stops (talk). 11. I'm for (do) nothing till the police arrive. They don't like you (move) anything when a crime has been committed. 12. He didn't like (leave) the children alone in the house but he had no alternative as he had (go) out to work. 13. Why didn't you drink it? ~ I didn't like (drink) it as I didn't know what it was. 14. I'm very sorry for (be) late. It was good of you (wait) for me. 15. I keep (try) (make) mayonnaise but I never succeed. ~ Try (add) the yolk of a hard-boiled egg.

16. Do you feel like (go) to a film or would you rather (stay) at home? 17. She told me (look) through her correspondence and (take) out any letters that you had written her. I don't like (look) through someone else's letters but I had (do) as she said. 18. He took to (get up) early and (walk) noisily about the house. 19. I liked (listen) to folk music much better than (listen) to pop 20. The car began (make) an extraordinary noise so I stopped (see) what it was.

21. You'll never regret (do) a kind action. 22. He decided (put) broken glass on top of his wall (prevent) boys (climb) over it. 23. He annoyed me very much by '(take) the piece of cake that I was keeping (eat) after my supper. 24. He kept (ring) up and (ask) for an explanation and she didn't know what (do) about him. 25. We got tired of (wait) for the weather (clear) and finally decided (set) out in the rain. 26. He made me (repeat) his instructions (make) sure that 1 understood what I was (do) after he had gone. 27. I suggest (leave) the car here and (send) a breakdowr van (tow) it to the garage. 28. She apologized for (borrow) my sewing-machine without (ask) permission and promised never (do) it again. 29. I didn't mean (offend) anyone but somehow I succeeded in (annoy) them all. 30. She claimed (be able) (tell) the future by (gaze) into her crystal ball. 31. He never thinks of (get) out of your way; he expects you (walk) round him. 32. You don't need (ask) his permission every time you want (leave) the room.


32. Decide whether to is functioning as a preposition or as part of an infinitive and then complete the sentences with the gerund or the infinitive forms of the verbs in brackets.

1. The speaker said he would confine himself to (try) to (answer) four questions. 2. By selling council houses, we are able to devote more money to (build) fresh properties. 3. Hard work is the key to (pass) examinations. 4. Having suggested the scheme myself I now feel committed to (try) to (make) it work. 5. I think that is what he said but I can't swear to (have) heard him correctly. 6. He used to (dislike) London but he now seems resigned to (live) there.

7. Jones came very close to (win) a gold medal for Britain in the Olympics. 8. It might be better to (try) to (discuss) it in his own language as he isn't used to (speak) English. 9. Most educationlists agree that no teacher's duties should be limited solely to (teach). 10. Unreliable delivery dates are one of the most important obstacles to (increase) our exports.


33. Use gerund or infinitive in the following sentences.

A. 1. The boys started (to run running). 2. They intended (to win winning) the race. 3. My parents love (to walk walking) in the wood 4. The children continued (to watch watching) TV.. 5. Don't try (to eat eating) the unripe apples. 6. After dinner I began (to do doing) my lessons. 7. Avoid (to make making) spelling mistakes.

B. 1. He must go on (to make making) experiments. 2. Mother loves (to work working) in the garden. 3. Can we put off (to see seeing) the exhibition for some days? 4. I don't deny (to have said having said) that. 5. You must get used to (to get up getting up) early. 6. Nobody was surprised at his (to have made having made) a long speech. 7. It's no good (to quarrel quarrelling) with him.


34. Choose the correct form of the verb in parentheses in the following sentences.

1. The teacher decided (accepting/to accept) the paper. 2. They appreciate (to have/having) this information. 3. His father doesn't approve of his (going/to go) to . Europe. 4. We found it very difficult (reaching/to reach) a decision 5. Leonac is interested in ( to open/opening) a bar. 6. George has no intention of (to leave/leaving) the city now. 7. We are eager (to return/returning) to school in autumn 8. You would be better off (to buy/buying) this car. 9. She refused (to accept/accepting) the gift. 10. Mary regrets (to be/being) the one to have to tell him.

11. George pretended (to be/being) sick yesterday. 12. Carlos hoped (to finish/finishing) his thesis this year. 13. They agreed (to leave/leaving) early. 14. Helen was anxious (to tell/telling) her family about her promotion. 15. We are not ready (to stop/stopping) this research at the time. 16. Henry shouldn't risk (to drive/driving) so fast. 17. He demands (to know/knowing) what is going on. 18. She is looking forward to (return/returning) to her country. 19. There is no excuse for (to leave/leaving) the room in this condition. 20. Gerald returned to his home after (to leave/leaving) the game.


35. Make an equivalent sentence, with a gerund or an infinitive, for each of these sentences.

It's hard to blow up balloons. Making a wish before you blow out the candle is very important. It's not easy to blow out all the candles. Opening the presents is exciting. But washing the dishes after the party is no fun. It's sad to have to wait a whole year for your next birthday.


36. Complete these sentences with the indefinite or gerund form of each verb in parentheses.

Leo, Marie, and their son Scott are on their way home after a dinner party at the home of Dan and Ruth.

L.: Well, I certainly enjoyed ___________ (see) Dan and Ruth again. The food was delicious, and they were really excited about_____(get) that new dining-room set.

M.: Well, at least Ruth Was. I think that Dan only agreed (take) the set because I was tired of _________(shop)-

L.: Maybe. But Ruth said the deal was too good ______(resist). The salesclerk suggested ______ (sign) a credit agreement, so they need________(pay) only $25 a month.

M.' I know that Ruth was eager_______ (take) her advice, but I'm afraid that Dan wasn't.

S.: Why?___________(buy) on credit is a good idea, isn't it? You can get more things by _______ (make) monthly payments, can't you?

M.: Yes, but ______ (use) finance plans costs a lot more than_________(pay) cash.

L.: Right. Stores want customers_________(agree) on____ (finance) because it's easier for them _______ (make) more money that way. There's monthly finance charge________(pay).

S.: Oh. But you like________(use) credit cards, don't you? Isn't it more convenient and safer ______ (carry) cards than money?

L.: Yes, it is. But you ought ________ (pay) your bills as soon as possible. That way, the bank doesn't keep ____ (charge) interest.

M.: Exactly. It's dangerous _______ (put) too many purchases on a credit card if you can't afford______(pay) for everything right away. I don't like to see people_____(get) into debt

that way.


37. Put in the correct forms of the infinitive or -ing.

THIS WAY! THAT WAY! In a split second, when no one was paying attention, the two prisoners escaped from the back of the police van. They were handcuffed to other. It was minutes before a policeman saw them (run) ... down the street. "We'll follow," two policemen said. "Have the driver (bring) ... the van to the end of the road.

Tell him (not let) .........them get away. If we're not careful, we'll

have the whole neighbourhood (complain) ...... that we've been

careless." The prisoners were still running side by side. The policeman saw them (race) ... up the hill and (disappear) ... round a corner. "We'll never catch them now!" one of them said. "I told you (not leave) ... them unattended." The prisoners were running, at top speed. Suddenly, they saw a lamp post in front of them "Go left! Go right!" they each shouted at the same time. They ran on either side of the lamp post. It just took time for the police (find) ... them lying on the pavement unhurt, dazed, and with silly grins on their faces.


38. Join these pairs of sentences, deciding when to use a bare infinitive or ing.

1. She crossed the road. I saw her. I saw............... 2. She was crossing the road. I caught sight of her. I noticed ...... 3. Something's burning. I can smell it. I can smell ............... 4. They sang a song. I listened to them. I listened......... 5. She was shouting at the children. I heard her. I heard ......... 6. The robbers were waiting near the bank. They were seen. The robbers were seen .........


39. Fill in the blanks.

1. Margaret challenged me (race)_____her across the pool. 2. David volunteered (bring) ___________ some food to the reception. 3. The students practised (pronounce) _______ the "th" sound in the phrase "these thirty-three dirty trees." 4. In the fairy tale, the wolf threatened (eat)_____________ a girl named Little Red Riding Hood. 5. Susie! How many times do I have to remind you (hang up) your coat when you get home from school?

6. The horses struggled (pull)__________ the wagon out of the mud. 7. Janice demanded (know)________________why she had been fired. 8. My skin can't tolerate (be)______in the sun all day long. I get sunburned easily. 9. I avoided (tell) _______________Mary the truth because I knew she would be angry. 10. Fred Washington claims (be) _________ a descendant of George Washington. 11. Alex broke the antique vase. I'm sure he didn't mean (do) '_______it. 12. I urged Al (return) _________ to school and (finish) ________his education.

13. Mrs Freeman can't help (worry) __________ about her children. 14. Children, I forbid you (play) ________ in the street. There's too much traffic. 15. My little cousin is a blabbermouth! He can't resist (tell) _________everyone my secrets! 16. I appreciate your (take)_________the time to help me. 17. I can't afford (buy)__________a new car. 18. Ted managed (change)__________my mind. 19. I think Sam deserved (have)__________another chance. 20. Julie finally admitted (be) responsible for the problem. 21. I don't recall ever (hear)________you mention his name before. 22. She keeps (promise) ________ (visit) _______ us, but she never does.


40. Fill in the blanks using gerund or infinitive.

1. Keep (talk)_____________I'm listening to you. 2. The children promised (play) ________ more quietly. They promised (make, not)_________so much noise. 3. Linda offered (look after) ________ my cat while I was out of town. 4. You shouldn't put off (pay)_______your bills. 5. Mark mentioned (go) ____________ to the market later today. I wonder if he's still planning (go)________. 6. Fred suggested (go) _______ (ski) ______ in the mountains this weekend. How does that sound to you? 7. The doctor ordered Mr. Gray (smoke, not) ___________. 8. Don't tell me his secret. I prefer (know, not)_________. 9. Could you please stop (whistle) ______? I'm trying (concentrate)____________on my work.

10. She finally decided (quit) _________ her present job and (look for) another one.

11. Did you remember (turn off)________the stove? 12. Jack was allowed (renew)__________his student visa 13. Pat told us (wait, not)___________for her. I

14. Mr Buck warned his daughter (play, not) _________ with matches. 15. Would you please remind me (call)____Alice tomorrow? 16. Liz encouraged me (throw away)______my old running shoes and (buy)_________a new pair without holes in the toes 17. I'm considering (drop out of)________school, (hitchike) __________to New York, and (try)_______ (find)______a job. 18. Don't forget (tell) ______ Jane (call) ______ me about (go)_______ (swim)_________tomorrow. 19. Sally reminded me (ask) _______ you (tell)________

Bob (remember) ________ (bring) ________ his soccer ball to the picnic.


41. Fill in the blanks.

Joe's and Diane's personalities are different in other ways, too. Diane is a very quiet person, but Joe is very talkative. He likes to_talk all the time. He especially enjoys_discussing politics

Diane (hate/discuss) ________politics. Also, when she is tired, she doesn't (want/talk) _____________ about anything; she (need/have)_________peace and quiet. Joe doesn't understand When Diane is quiet, he thinks she's unhappy. Sometimes when Joe talks a lot, it drives Diane crazy. Then she jokes and says, "Joe, you never (stop/talk)_________".

However, Joe and Diane are not completely different. They share some interests, and they (enjoy/do) __________ many things together. For example, both Joe and Diane are interested

(of, in, about) __________ cook___________On Saturdays they (like/spend) ________ all day (cook) ___________, but they both (hate/wash) dishes. They also (like/go) ________ to

old movies from the 1930s and 40s together and they (like/go) __________ to the theatre. They have some problems in their relationship, but in general they (enjoy/be)_________together.


42. Open the brackets.

There are many well (mean) people who believe that it is impossible to stop the conflict between the deeply (divide) religious groups in Northern Ireland. However, there have always been peace (love) people who have tried to bring together Catholics and Protestants. These much (need) peace groups were often organized by women. And if you look around, you will see some (encourage) signs in Northern Ireland.

One woman with (fascinate) ideas about how the conflict could be stopped is Sister Veronica O'Brien. She was a teacher in the Catholic Falls Road area of Belfast. After she had taught there for 15 years, she started a carefully (plan) project in North Belfast, the city's most religiously (mix) area.

First she told (interest) teachers about her project. Then she had to "sell" her ideas to pupils. There have already been some (promise) results: she has talked with (mix) groups of Catholic and Protestant pupils about the troubles. In this way she hopes they will learn to understand each other.


43. Rewrite these sentences using past participle.

1. The painting was lost for many years. It turned up at an auction. 2. Although the meat was cooked for several hours, it was still tough. 3. If the picture is seen from this angle, it looks rather good. 4. The vegetables which are sold in this shop are grown without chemicals.

5. When the poem is read aloud it is very effective.


44. Join each of the following pairs of sentences, using either a present participle e.g. knowing, a past participle e.g. known, or a perfect participle e.g. having known. Numbers 17, 28, 33, and 36 contain three sentences each. Combine these in the same way.

He got off his horse. He began searching for something on the ground.

Getting off his horse, he began searching ...

I had seen photographs of the place. I had no desire to go there.

Having seen photographs of the place, I had no desire ...

The speaker refused to continue. He was infuriated by the interruptions.

Infuriated by the interruptions, the speaker refused ...

These participle constructions are more common in written English.

1. I knew that he was poor. I offered to pay his fare. 2. We barricaded the windows. We assembled in the hall. 3. She became tired of my complaints about the programme. She turned it off. 4. He found no one at home. He left the house in a bad temper. 5. She hoped to find the will. She searched everywhere. 6. The criminal removed all traces of his crime. He left the building. 7. He realized that he had missed the last train. He began to walk. 8. He was exhausted by his work. He threw himself on his bed. 9. He had spent all his money. He decided to go home and ask his father for a job. 10. He escaped from prison. He looked for a place where he could get food. 11. She didn't want to hear the story again. She had heard it all before. 12. They found the money. They began quarrelling about how to divide it. 13. She entered the room suddenly. She found them smoking. 14. I turned on the light. I was astonished at what I saw. 15. We visited the museum. We decided to have lunch in the park.

16. He offered to show us the way home. He thought we were lost. 17. He found his revolver. He loaded it. He sat down facing the door. 18. She asked me to help her. She realized that she couldn't move it alone. 19. He fed the dog. He sat down to his own dinner. 20. He addressed the congregation. He said he was sorry to see how few of them had been able to come.

: 2015-09-13; : 17;

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