• Grammar:Subjunctive Mood (§ 6).
Conditional Sentences (§ 7).
Functions of shouldand would(§11, 12).
• Word-formation:n → v; v + -ion= n.
• Individual Work:Lab Work "Subjunctive Mood."
I. Practise the reading of the following words:
mirror ['mirq], earth [E:T], neutrino [n(j)u:ˊtri:nqV], beam [bi:m], nucleus ['nju:kliqs], convert [kqn'vE:t].
II. Check up if you can read the words correctly and say what words in the Russian language help you to guess their meaning:
horizon, ocean, relay, region, ionosphere, matter, detect, molecule, combine, induce, code, incorporate, civilization.
III.State to what parts of speech the following words belong:
to communicate, signals, telegraphy, rich, to reflect, long, solar, to improve, unreasonable, better, electrical, hard, subatomic, miles, huge, crust, modulation, to incorporate, fields.
IV. a) Find the roots of the following words:
longer, massless, communication, amplified, unreasonable, perceptibly, induction, producing, complicated, modulation, unnecessary, looking, electrical, subatomic, occasionally, charged;
b) Translate the words formed by conversion:
air – to air; influence – to influence; end – to end; place – to place; engine – to engine; start – to start; finish – to finish; work – to work;
c) Read the words. Mind the place of the stress and translate the
'progress – to pro'gress; 'increase – to inc'rease; 'export – to ex'port; 'object – to ob'ject; 'import – to im'port; 'record – to re'cord; 'project – to pro'ject; 'alloy – to a'lloy;
d) Form nouns adding the suffix -ion(-tion) to the given verbs making changes where necessary:
Example:to reflect – reflection – отражать – отражение
to communicate, to affect, to direct, to detect, to produce, to complicate, to modulate, to incorporate, to induce, to disrupt;
e) Form adjectives adding the suffix -ic to the given nouns making changes where necessary:
Example:atom – atomic – атом – атомный
atmosphere, scientist, electromagnet, base, cycle, electron, graph, hero, optimist, ionosphere.
V. Check up if you know the meaning of the following verbs. Consult a dictionary:
to string, to unite, to travel, to send, to set up, to charge, to take place, to produce, to disrupt, to amplify, to seem, to induce.
VI. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the verbs in the Subjunctive Mood:
1. Without radio we should hardly be able to observe artificial satellites and receive scientific information from space. 2. The solution of the problem requires that all the experimental data obtained be exact. 3. It is required that all measurements be done beforehand. 4. It is necessary that these data should be processed as soon as possible. 5. It is important that engineers should develop automatic control systems. 6. Atomic energy finds such wide and varied application in our life that our age might be called the age of atom. 7. It is important that safety measures be taken while working with the electric equipment. 8. It is desirable that the engine should combine high efficiency and lightness. 9. We suggested that his project be discussed in detail. 10. It is essential that he should inform us about the results of his research.
VII. Translate the sentences. Mind the means of expressing the Subjunctive Mood:
1. Provided all of the requirements were met, the efficiency of the apparatus would be increased. 2. Without the new instrument this experiment would not have been successful. 3. If you classified the data fewer tests would be needed. 4. If you had known about semiconductors more, you would have understood the arrangement of this device. 5. You could have done this work better. 6. You might have asked me about the work of this machine before putting it into operation. 7. They suggest that he should begin the test immediately. 8. It is required that those devices be used in this case. 9. Had he informed me in time I should have sent this device. 10. Without proper care and maintenance this equipment wouldn't operate so well. 11. If the machine were repaired, it would be set in motion immediately. 12. If he had been able to get all the books on that subject, his report would have been much better. 13. Had you taken all the safety measures the machine would not have been broken.
VIII. Find in text A sentences with the Subjunctive Mood. Translate these sentences paying attention to the means of expressing the Subjunctive Mood.
IX. Define the types of conditional clauses in the following complex sentences. Translate them into Russian:
A. 1. If a solid body or a liquid is heated, it will usually expand. 2. If you want to carry out your experiment successfully, you thoroughly prepare all the necessary ingredients. 3. The measurements were always correct provided the necessary instruments were used. 4. If you want to speak a language, you must hear it spoken. 5. If a machine is to make usable translations, the machine itself must be able to extract some meaning of the text. 6. If we are to believe some forecasts, computers may become a common thing of every day used by almost everybody. 7. If the model fits well, the observed data will be correct.
B. 1. If sound could propagate in interplanetary space it would cover this distance in 14 years. 2. If the earth were as hot as Venus, the oceans would evaporate. 3. Were it not for ionosphere, radio waves would propagate like light waves only within the limits of visible horizon. 4. If I were to see your experiment, I should get a clear conception of this phenomenon. 5. But for electricity little could be done in a modern research laboratory. 6. If a new telephone system were installed on the line we should be able to improve the reliability of telephone service. 7. If life existed on the Venus, we should know it. 8. It would be better if some experiments were repeated. 9. If the Earth did not rotate, it would not take the shape of a ball.
C. 1. If he had prepared the material beforehand, he might have done the work quite easily. 2. If they had completed the research, the results would have been discussed at the conference. 3. The manned spaceships might not have been launched into the cosmos, unless scientists had studied the information received from the space satellites. Could these observations have been proved theoretically they would have done much to advance our knowledge in the field of space research. If he had been able to get all the books on that subject, his report would have been much better. 6. Had he taken into account the properties of the substance under investigation, he would have been careful when working with it.
X. Find in text A sentences with conditional clauses, define the types of the clauses and translate the sentences.
XI. Define the functions of shouldand would. Translate the sentences:
A. 1. He thought I should come to the laboratory. 2. We know we should be able to overcome all the difficulties in our research. 3. We were sure that we should finish our work in time. 4. The director asked whether the materials of our research would be typed. 5. He said that he would mention your work in his report. 6. The teacher thought that the students of this group would be able to understand the new text. 7. Yesterday I found out that the professor would lecture on the latest developments in cybernetics.
B. 1. It is very important that you should take part in the discussion. 2. It is necessary that they should come in time. 3. It is important that the current should be measured exactly.4. Without radio electronics there would be no cybernetics, cosmonautics and nuclear physics. 5. It would be impossible to measure the temperature of Venus without a radio-telescope. 6. They suggest that we should begin the tests immediately. 7. Don't raise the temperature lest the speed of the reaction should be too high. 8. The instruments were packed carefully lest they should be broken during transportation.
С. 1. If they had completed the research, the results would have been discussed at the conference. 2. If you had applied your theoretical knowledge to your practical work, you would have got a different result. 3. If he had not used this formula, he would not have made this mistake. 4. They would finish the work in time, provided they had the necessary material. 5. Should one transmitter fail, the other takes over its functions. 6. Should the temperature decrease, the velocity of electrons will decrease too.
D. 1. It should be borne in mind that this method fails to give good results. 2. He would work on his design for hours. 3. One should keep in mind this property of water. 4. The reaction wouldn't proceed until we added some water. 5. This transistor would operate at 400°C. 6. The results of the experiments should be checked up very carefully. 7. He would prepare for his exams for hours. 8. You should work at your English as hard as possible. 9. Last year we would spend much time in the laboratory.
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