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Topical Vocabulary. code of laws - свод законов




code of laws - свод законов

written law (statutes) Ц писаный закон (статуты)

common law Ц общее право (неписаный закон)

equity Ц право справедливости

judicial precedent Ц судебный прецедент

case law (judge-made law) Ц прецедентное право; право, основыва-

ющеес€ на судебных прецедентах

law reports Ц судебные отчеты

Court of Chancery Ц канцлерский суд; суд лорда-канцлера

Judicature Act Ц закон о судоустройстве

Supreme Court Ц ¬ерховный —уд јнглии

delegated legislation Ц делегированное законодательство, т.е. акты

законодат. характера, издаваемые правительством

by-law -постановление местных органов власти, прин€тое в развитие

общенационального закона

civil law Ц гражданское право

criminal law Ц уголовное право

offences tried summarily Ц преступлени€, которые рассматриваютс€

суммарно; суммарные преступлени€

jury Цприс€жные, суд прис€жных

indictment Ц обвинительный акт

try upon indictment Ц судить, преследовать по обвинительному акту

magistratesТ court Ц суд магистратов (рассматривает дела о мелких

преступлени€х)

county court Ц суд графства (высша€ судебна€ инстанци€ графства)

Crown Court Ц суд короны

High Court of Justice Ц ¬ысокий суд первой инстанции (гражд.право)

Chancery Division Ц канцлерское отделение ¬ысокого суда

QueenТs Bench Division Ц отделение королевской скамьи

Family Division Ц отделение по семейным делам

Court of Appeal Ц апелл€ционный суд

commit smb for trial Ц предавать кого-либо суду

accused - обвин€емый

magistrate, justice of peace Ц судь€-магистрат, мировой судь€

Lord Chief Justice Ц лорд-главный судь€

Master of the Rolls Ц начальник судебных архивов, лорд-хранитель

судебных архивов

Lord(s) Justice(s) of Appeal Ц лорды-апелл€ционные судьи

Lord of Appeal in Ordinary Ц лорд-юрист по аппел€ции (ординарные

лорды по апелл€ции)

Law Lords Ц судебные лорды, лорды-судьи

barrister Ц барристер; адвокат, выступающий в высших судах

solicitor Ц солиситор; адвокат, консультирующий клиентов

Bar Ц адвокатура, коллеги€ адвокатов

trial Ц судебный процесс, разбирательство

brief Ц краткое письменное изложение дела с привлечением фактов,

с которым сторона выступает в суде

 

Answer the questions:

1.How can you characterize English law? What is necessary to get a comprehensive picture of English Law? 2. What are the sources of law in the United Kingdom? 3. What did the common law develop from? 4. What does a system of precedents mean? 5. What are the synonymous expressions to Уthe common lawФ? 6. The common law in unwritten law. Nevertheless, does its УwrittenФ form exist? 7. Why did people petition the King to exercise his personal power of justice? 8. Who dealt with these petitions? 9. What is the origin of the notion УequityФ? 10. When was the English legal system reformed? 11. What does the notion УequityФ mean nowadays? 12. What does statute law comprise? 13. What kind of law in the United Kingdom is more modern Ц unwritten law or written one? 14. Explain what is Уdelegated legislationФ and Уby-lawФ? 15. What is civil law concerned with? 16. What is criminal law concerned with? 17. When is the trial upon indictment necessary? 18. Give the structure of courts in England and Wales. 19. What three courts compose the Supreme Court? 20. What are the functions of magistratesТ courts? 21. Who presides over magistratesТ courts? What are the conditions of their work.? 22. What do you know about county courts? 23. What are the main functions of the Crown Court? 24. Name the divisions of the High Court of Justice. 25. Who are these divisions headed by? 26. Name the members of the Court of Appeal Civil Division. 27. Give the composition of the Court of Appeal Criminal Division. 28. What do you know about the judges in the House of Lords? 29. What are the branches of the legal profession in England? 30. What is the duty of a solicitor? 31. What are the functions of a barrister? 32. In what way are the rights of a barrister restricted?

 

Suggest the Russian for the following:

To have the sanction of the law through custom and usage; laws are still valid to the present day; written law; common law; equity; to constitute a precedent; to confront with the facts; case law; judge-made law; to petition somebody; to be dealt with by somebody; Lord Chancellor; to be bound by precedents; the Court of Chancery; Judicature Act; the courts were abolished; within the province of the common law; statutes; to confer a power to somebody; to supersede a law; to repeal a law; delegated legislation; by-laws; a jury; to be tried upon indictment; magistratesТ court; country court; the High Court of Justice; the QueenТs Bench Division; Court of Appeal; to try criminal cases; to dispose of the cases; to conduct preliminary investigations; evidence; to commit the accused for trial; to preside over; justice of the peace; the Crown Court; the have a right to trial by jury; Lord Chief Justice; the Masters of the Rolls; the law Lords; barrister; solicitor; to be entitled to do something; the Bar; to conduct case in court; to deliver a brief to the barrister.

Fill in the blanks with prepositions where necessary:

1. English law is invariably linked Е the history Е the English constitution. 2. The common law developed Е spontaneously observed rules and practices, Е royal courts established Е Normal kings. 3. Any judge who is subsequently confronted Е a similar set Е facts must decide the case Е the same way as Е the earlier judgment. 4. He bases his decision Е a case Е its similarity Е a previous case Е which judgment has already been given. 5. Such people petitioned Е the King to exercise his personal power Е justice. 6. The decisions Е such cases depended Е what the Chancellor thought was right or УequitableФ. 7. The English legal system was reformed Е the Judicature Act. 8. УEquityФ nowadays means that part Е the unwritten law which deals Е matters not Е the province Е the common law. 9. Statutes comprise subordinate legislation madeЕ the power conferredЕ 10. Parliament. Parliament confers or УdelegatesФ authorityЕ a specific body. 11. Local authorities draw a good deal Е their authority Е Parliament. 12. Civil law is concernedЕ the rights, duties and obligations Е individual membersЕ societyЕ themselves. 13. Criminal offences range Е minor offences tried summarily Е a jury Е the more serious offences tried Е indictment. 14. The present systemЕ courtsЕ England is basedЕ the Judicature ActЕ 1873 andЕ the Court ActЕ 1971. 15. MagistratesТ courts determine whether there is sufficient evidence to commit the accused Е trial Е the Crown Court. 16. The court consist Е between 2 and 7 magistrates. 17. Country courts deal Е a wide varietyЕ cases. 18. The accused has a right Е trial Е jury. 19. The High Court Е Justice is divided Е 3 divisions, each division dealing Е particular types Е work.. 20. The QueenТs Bench division is presided Е Е the Lord Chief Justice Е England, who ranks next Е the Lord Chancellor Е the legal hierarchy. 21. The Court of Appeal Criminal Division normally consistsЕ three judges. 22. The judgesЕ the HouseЕLords must have a quorum Е three. 23. Solicitors give legal advice Е a wide varietyЕ questions, ranging Е those of a domestic natureЕ those affecting public affairs. 24. It is against established usageЕ a barrister to have any direct contactЕ his client. 25. Solicitors are entitled to represent their clientsЕ the lower courts.

 

Fill in the blanks with appropriate words from the list below:

1.English law has the sanction of the law throughЕ andЕ .2. The sources of law in the United Kingdom include: Е and Е based on judicialЕ3. In other words, the judge usesЕ: he bases his decision in a case on its similarly to a previous case. 4. The common law is also referred to asЕ or Е 5. The petitions were dealt with byЕ, the KingТs chief minister. 6. Gradually a system of rules grew up in the Court of Chancery, too; these were called rules of Е to distinguish them from rules ofЕ 7. Statute law is more modern thanЕ 8. Parliament can make new laws, and supersede or Е old laws. 9. This is called Уdelegated authorityФ; and their laws are calledЕ 10. Е is concerned with wrongs against the community as a whole. 11. The Crown Court, the High Court and the Court of Appeal together form Е 12. MagistratesТ courts are presided over by Е also called Е who work part-time and are unpaid. 13. County courts are the main Е 14. Е deals with all the more serious criminal cases. 15. The Crown court also hears appeals from Е 16. In the City of London, the Crown Court continues to be know as Е 17. Е hears all those civil cases that cannot be decided by county courts. 18. The Lord Chancellor is the nominal head of Е 19. The ordinary members of the Court of Appeal are 14 Е . 20. The judges in Е are the ten Lords of Appeal in Ordinary (the Уlaw lordsФ) . 21. The legal profession is divided into two branches: Е and 22. Solicitors are entitled to represent their clients inЕ (the county courts and magistratesТ courts). 23. Barristers are known collectively as Е, collectively and individually as Е 24. The function of barristers is to advise on legal problems submitted through solicitors and Е 25. The client must go to Е who prepares the case for Е and instructs the barrister on his clientТs behalf.

 

Custom and usage; written law; unwritten law; precedent; a process of analogy; case law; judge-made law; the Lord Chancellor; Equity; Common Law; repeal; delegated legislation; criminal law; the Supreme Court; lay magistrates; justices of the peace; civil courts; the Crown Court; magistratesТ courts; the Old Bailey; the High Court; the Chancery Division; Lords Justices of Appeal; the House of Lords; barristers; solicitors; the lower courts; the Bar; to conduct cases in court; a solicitor; trial.

 

Find English equivalents:

Ќеписаный закон; право справедливости; писаный закон; судебный прецедент; прецедентное право; подавать прошение, ходатайствовать; вести дело, рассматривать прошение; лорд-канцлер; не считать, что прецедент кого-либо ограничивает; канцлерский суд; закон о судоустройстве; упразднить суды; верховный суд јнглии; не входить в компетенцию общего права; надел€ть властью; вводить закон; отмен€ть закон; делегированное законодательство; постановление местных органов власти; гражданское право; уголовное право; торговое право; прис€жные; обвинительный акт; суд магистратов; суд графства; суд короны; канцлерское отделение ¬ысокого суда; апелл€ционный суд; вести предварительное следствие, касающеес€ более серьЄзных дел; предавать кого-либо суду; председательствовать на; обвин€емый; мировой судь€, судь€-магистрат; начальник судебных архивов; лорд-судь€ по апелл€ции; барристер; солиситор; представл€ть клиентов в низших судах; вести дело в суде; подготовить дело дл€ судебного процесса.

 

 

Test 1

Choose the most appropriate word underlined:

 

1.The police arrested Jack and took him into (a / b / c: custody /detention/

prison).

2.In most countries, the capital/ death/ execution penalty has been

abolished.

3.A man is said to be helping the police with their

arrests /detection/ inquiries.

4.The judge in the court was wearing a hairpiece/ head-dress/ wig.

5.Two football fans were later charged with aggression/ assault /attack.

6.Less serious cases are dealt with in the criminal/ juvenile/ magistrate/s

court.

7.I was given a light sentence because it was my first case/ charge/

offence.

8.A patrol car stopped me because I was racing/ running/ speeding in a

built-up area.

9.The case was dismissed for lack of evidence/ a jury/ witnesses.

10.ТMembers of the jury, what is your answer/ summary/ verdict?Т

 

Test 2


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