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Enumeration




Enumeration in simple sentences is represented by a number of homogeneous parts. Each of them is pronounced as a separate intonation group.

The terminal tone of the final intonation group depends on the communicative type of

the sentence. The terminal tone of the non-final intonation groups may be different:

(a) The Low Rise or Mid Level are used for communicative purposes to show that there is more to be said.

Frequently each following intonation group is pronounced on the lower level than the preceding one,

e.g. I ˈbought some ,socks, ∣ ˌ shirts ∣ and ֻties.

All he ˈdoes is > sleep, ∣ > eat ∣ and ֻplay.

(b) If the enumeration is not completed the final intonation group is pronounced with the Low Rise or with the Mid Level,

e.g. You can ˈhave po,tatoes, ∣ ,carrots, ∣ ,cabbages.

(c) In case the speaker wishes the enumeration to be regarded as separate items of interest the Low Fall is used. Such sentences are pronounced in a slow deliberate way and with longer pauses,

e.g. She has a ˈlot of ,dresses, ∣ ,shoes ∣ and ֻhats.

6. Author’s words ( reporting phrases)

The author’s words may either introduce direct speech or follow it, sometimes they interrupt direct speech breaking the phrase into at least two intonation groups.

The author’s words preceding direct speech should be treated as a separate intonation group. So they are pronounced with almost any terminal tone,

e.g. And ˈthen he ֻsaid, ∣ “ ˈPraps you are > right”.

And ˈthen he ,said, ∣ “ ˈPraps you are > right”.

And ˈthen he > said, ∣ “ ˈPraps you are > right”.

If the author’s words follow direct speech they continue as an unstressed or partially-stressed tail of the preceding intonation group,

e.g. “ ˈWhat ֻis it for?”, he asked.

In case the author’s words form a fairly long sequence hey may be arranged may be arranged into a separate intonation group pronounced with the same terminal tone as the preceding one but on a lower pitch,

e.g. “ ˈCome ֻhere”, ∣ he ˌordered in a ˈsharp ֻvoice.



When the author’s words consist potentially of two or more intonation groups he first of them is pronounced in the way mentioned above. The second and the third are always stressed and are pronounced each on a lower pitch level. The end of the actual dialogue dictates the terminal tone of the final intonation group,

e.g. “It’s ˈ rather ex ֻpensive”, she reˌ marked∣ ˌlooking in the ֻshop window.

The non-final intonation groups may be pronounced either with the low rising or low falling tone in accordance with the semantic importance and completeness of the thought,

e.g. “I’ve ˈ nearly ֻ finished it!” ∣ he exˌ claimed s ֻ miling ∣ with the a note of

ֻ pride in his ˌ voice.

 


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