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VIII. Найдите и выпишите из текста предложения со словами it, one. Укажите значения этих слов. Переведите предложения на русский язык.




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Вариант № 2

 

I. Прочитайте и устно переведите весь текст. Перепишите и письменно переведите абзацы 1,3,4:

Economic Goods and Services

 

1. People begin to learn about economics when they are still very young. Even be­fore they start school, they make two very important economic discoveries. They find that there are lots of things in the world they want. They also find that they cannot have them all. There is a big gap between what they want and what they can have.

2. Later, young people learn another lesson. When they watch television commer­cials, they discover that there are thousands of things they or their parents could buy. Gradually, they settle into two major economic roles: consumer and producer.

3. In the role of consumer, a person buys goods and services for personal use, not for resale. Consumer goods are products, such as food, clothing, and cars, that sat­isfy people's economic needs or wants. Some consumer goods, such as food, do not last a long time. Other goods, such as cars last longer. Sooner or later, though, consumer goods are used up. Bananas are a typical example of per­ishable goods, by "perishable" we mean goods which cannot be stored for any length of time without going bad. Most foodstuffs are in the perishable category. Services are actions, such as haircutting, cleaning or teaching. Services are used up at the time they are provided.

4. A producer makes the goods or provides the services that consumers use. A person who makes lemonade and then sells it is producing goods. A person who shovels snow during the winter or clerks in a store is providing a service.

5. In order to produce something, however, a person must first have right re­sources. Resources are the materials from which goods and services are made. There are three kinds of resources: human (people), natural (raw materials), and capital resources (capital, or the money or property). If either of these resources is missing, production will stop.

6. The economy as a whole, like an individual, can produce only products for which it has the right kind of resources. No economy can produce the things people want if it doesn't have enough of the right kinds of resources. And no economy has an unlimited supply of resources. In other words, there is a scarcity of resources. Scarcity is the situation that exists when demand for a good, service, or resource is greater than supply. In economics, you will study how people use their resources, to make the goods and to provide the services they want. Economics is also the study of how people decide who will get the goods and the services produced. Human wants tend to be unlimited, but human, natural, and capital resources are, unfortunately, limited.



II. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

 

1. What do young people discover while watching television commercials? What economic roles do they settle into?

2. What is the major difference between the roles of a consumer and a producer?

3. What are the categories in which consumer goods can be divided?

4. In what way is scarcity related to different types of resources?


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