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Краткий англо-русский словарь по курсу
1. Access to information and knowledge - доступ к информации и знаниям.1. Assuring that there is universal availability of the strategies and tools essential for the effective use of knowledge: it means accessibility to networks, infrastructures and services, as well as the content that is relevant for political and socio-cultural citizenship; it is a facility that enables citizens to communicate with the relevant outside world. 2. Access to information and knowledge as a subject of discussion. The problem arises and is being solved in the process of solving contradictions between a trend to transborder monopolization and standardization of ICTs and information and a trend to decentralization and adjustment of them to local tasks.
2. Аrmed conflict – вооруженный конфликт.
3. Axis of evil - «ось зла».Is a term initially used by the former United States President George W. Bush in his State of the Union Address on January 29, 2002 and often repeated throughout his presidency, describing governments that he accused of helping terrorism and seeking weapons of mass destruction.
4. "BoP" – биполярность. Is a central concept in neorealist theory. Within a balance of power system, a state may choose to engage in either balancing or bandwagoning behavior. In a time of war, the decision to balance or to bandwagon may well determine the survival of the state.
5. Band wagon – общая платформа.
6. Business-to-Business (B2B)1. An informal term, which designates exchange of goods, services or information between companies not including the end user. Usually this is a part of specialized web portals. 2. Electronic model of business presupposing that intermediate transactions between companis are conducted electronically.
7. Briefing – брифинг.
8. Card stacking – «подтасовка карт».
9. Chantage – шантаж.
10. CIA – The Central Intelligence Agency - Центральное разведывательное управление.A civilian intelligence agency of the United States government, reporting to the Director of National Intelligence, responsible for providing national security intelligence to senior United States policymakers.
11. The Cold War - «холодная война». It was the continuing state of political conflict, military tension, proxy wars, and economic competition existing after World War II (1939–1945) between the Communist World – primarily the Soviet Union and its satellite states and allies – and the powers of the Western world, primarily the United States and its allies.
12. Colour revolution («цветная революция») - a term used by the media to describe related movements that developed in several societies in the CIS (former USSR) and Balkan states during the early 2000s. Some observers have called the events a revolutionary wave.
13. Computerisation (компьютеризация) – process of development and implementation of computers providing automatisation of information processes in different spheres of human activity
14. Communications deception (дезинформация) - deliberate transmission, retransmission, or alteration of communications to mislead an adversary's interpretation of the communications.
15. Communications security (безопасность средств связи) - measures and controls taken to deny unauthorized individuals information derived from telecommunications and to ensure the authenticity of such telecommunications.
16. Compromise – компромисс.
17. Concept of operations (алгоритм операций) -Document detailing the method, act, process, or effect of using an information system.
18. Confidentiality (конфиденциальность) -Assurance that information is not disclosed to unauthorized individuals.
19. Content-control software, also known as censorware or web filtering software (ко́нтент-фильтр, или програ́мма ограниче́ния веб-ко́нтента) – software designed and optimized for controlling what content is permitted to a reader, especially when it is used to restrict material delivered over the Web. Content-control software determines what content will be available.
20. Corporate social responsibility (корпоративная социальная ответственность) is a form of corporate self-regulation integrated into a business model. CSR policy functions as a built-in, self-regulating mechanism whereby business monitors and ensures its active compliance with the spirit of the law, ethical standards, and international norms.
21. Countermeasure (контрмеры) –action, device, procedure, technique, or other measure that reduces the vulnerability of an IS.
22. Counter-intelligence or counterintelligence (see spelling differences) (контрразведка)refers to efforts made by intelligence organizations to prevent hostile or enemy intelligence organizations from successfully gathering and collecting intelligence against them. National intelligence programs, and, by extension, the overall defenses of nations, are vulnerable to attack. It is the role of intelligence cycle security to protect the process embodied in the intelligence cycle, and that which it defends.
23. Crimes against humanity (преступления против человечности), as defined by the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court Explanatory Memorandum, "are particularly odious offences in that they constitute a serious attack on human dignity or grave humiliation or a degradation of one or more human beings. They are not isolated or sporadic events, but are part either of a government policy (although the perpetrators need not identify themselves with this policy) or of a wide practice of atrocities tolerated or condoned by a government or a de facto authority
24. Cyber space (киберпространство)– word invented by the writer William Gibson in his play “Le Neuromacien”. It describes the virtual space in which the electronic data of worldwide copmputers circulate
25. CNN effect (эффект CNN) –сoverage of the first Gulf War and other crises of the early 1990s (particularly the infamous Battle of Mogadishu) led officials at the Pentagon to coin the term "the CNN effect" to describe the perceived impact of real time, 24-hour news coverage on the decision-making processes of the American government
26. Digital divide – цифровой разрыв
27. Data (данные) –registered facts.
28. Data mining – добыча данных
29. Data security – защита данных от несанкционированного доступа
30. Data warehouse – хранилище данных
31. DBMS (Data Base Management System) – СУБД (система управления базами данных)
32. Data protection (защита информации) – ways and means providing integrity, confidentiality and accessibility of information under condition of natural or artificial threats which can bring damage to the owners or users of information.
33. Digital age (цифровой век) –this term appeared due to the global dissemination of digital technology as this process has a great socio-cultural impact
34. Dignity (достоинство) – a term used in moral, ethical, and political discussions to signify that a being has an innate right to respect and ethical treatment. It is an extension of Enlightenment-era beliefs that individuals have inherent, inviolable rights, and it is thus closely related to concepts like virtue, respect, self-respect, autonomy, human rights, and enlightened reason. Dignity is a precondition of freedom
35. Defamation (диффамация) –also called calumny, vilification, slander, and libel—is the communication of a statement that makes a claim, expressly stated or implied to be factual, that may give an individual, business, product, group, government, or nation a negative image. It is usually a requirement that this claim be false and that the publication is communicated to someone other than the person defamed (the claimant)
36. The dissolution of the Soviet Union (распад СССР) was a process of systematic disintegration, which occurs in economy, social structure and political structure. It resulted in abolition of Soviet Federal Government ("the Union centre") and independence of USSR's republic on 26 December 1991.
37. Е-Government (электронное правительство) – a metaphor, which denotes information interaction between state authorities and society with the help of ICT.
38. Electronic data interchange (EDI) (электронный обмен данными (ЭОД) -a way unaffiliated companies can use networks to link their businesses. While e-Mail between companies is common, electronic interchange passes bigger bundles that replace large paper documents such as bills and contracts.
39. Empowerment (повышение компетентности) – outcome of activities which build the capacity and skills of individuals, community groups, the private sector, governments and institutions, with the aim of enabling them to take part in the global Knowledge Society and Knowledge Economy, and make informed choices relevant to their needs.
40. Environment – окружающая среда
41. Establishment – истеблишмент
42. Event (событие) –occurrence, not yet assessed, that may affect the performance of an IS.
43. Encryption (шифрование) -in cryptography, encryption is the process of transforming information (referred to as plaintext) using an algorithm (called cipher) to make it unreadable to anyone except those possessing special knowledge, usually referred to as a key. The result of the process is encrypted information (in cryptography, referred to as ciphertext). In many contexts, the word encryption also implicitly refers to the reverse process, decryption (e.g. “software for encryption” can typically also perform decryption), to make the encrypted information readable again (i.e. to make it unencrypted)
44. An Enterprise Information System (корпоративная информационная система (КИС) is generally any kind of computing system that is of "enterprise class". This means typically offering high quality of service, dealing with large volumes of data and capable of supporting some large organization ("an enterprise"). Enterprise Information Systems provide a technology platform that enables organizations to integrate and coordinate their business processes.
45. ERP – Enterprise Resource Planning – система управления деятельностью предприятия
46. Extranet – расширенная интрасеть
47. Extremism (экстремизм) is any ideology or political act far outside the perceived political center of a society; or otherwise claimed to violate common moral standards. In democratic societies, individuals or groups that advocate the replacement of democracy with a authoritarian regime are usually branded extremists, in authoritarian societies the opposite applies.
48. Guerrilla warfare (партизанская война) is a form of irregular warfare and refers to conflicts in which a small group of combatants including, but not limited to, armed civilians (or "irregulars") used military tactics, such as ambushes, sabotage, raids, the element of surprise, and extraordinary mobility to harass a larger and less-mobile traditional army, or strike a vulnerable target, and withdraw almost immediately
49. Human rights (права человека) are "rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled". Proponents of the concept usually assert that everyone is endowed with certain entitlements merely by reason of being human. Human rights are thus conceived in a universalist and egalitarian fashion. Such entitlements can exist as shared norms of actual human moralities, as justified moral norms or natural rights supported by strong reasons, or as legal rights either at a national level or within international law.
50. Human threat – угроза со стороны людей
51. Humanitarian intervention – гуманитарная интервенция, гуманитарная война
52. Illegal armed formations – незаконные вооружённые формирования (НВФ)
53. The International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991 (Междунаро́дный трибуна́л по бы́вшей Югосла́вии (МТБЮ), more commonly referred to as the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia or ICTY, is a body of the United Nations established to prosecute serious crimes committed during the wars in the former Yugoslavia, and to try their perpetrators.
54. Information (информация) - data on persons, objects, facts, events, phenomena and processes (regardless of format) needed for decision making.
55. An intrusion detection system (IDS) (система обнаружения вторжений (СОВ) is a device or software application that monitors network and/or system activities for malicious activities or policy violations and produces reports to a Management Station. Intrusion prevention is the process of performing intrusion detection and attempting to stop detected possible incidents. Intrusion detection and prevention systems (IDPS) are primarily focused on identifying possible incidents, logging information about them, attempting to stop them, and reporting them to security administrators. In addition, organizations use IDPSs for other purposes, such as identifying problems with security policies, documenting existing threats, and deterring individuals from violating security policies. IDPSs have become a necessary addition to the security infrastructure of nearly every organization
56. Informational inequality (информационное неравенство) –1. A new kind of social differentiation resulting from different opportunities to use modern ICTs. 2. Informational inequality is used by proponents of the theory connecting unequal dissemination of ICTs with civil rights and welfare. It is considered as a kind of socio-economical inequality.
57. Information environment (информационная среда) –Aggregate of individuals, organizations, or systems that collect, process, or disseminate information, also included is the information itself.
58. Information industry (Информационная индустрия) –Wide scale production of different information goods and services (starting with newspapers, magazines and books and up to computer games and content production). It includes two principally different components: production of information technology and production of information.
59. Information generalisation (обобщение информации) – transformation of information on a variety of separate events into information on an upper level event, when the above mentioned separate events become a part of it
60. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) (информационно-коммуникационные технологии (ИКТ) –integration of methods, production processes, hardware and software means with the aim to provide gathering, processing, storage, dissemination, display and usage of information in the interests of its users.
61. Information resources (информационные ресурсы) – documents and files of documents in information systems (libraries, archives, data bases, depositories, museums etc.).
62. Information Revolution (информационная революция) – a metaphor for the revolutionary impact of ICTs on all spheres of life in the last quarter of the XX century. This phenomenon integrates the effects of the previous revolutionary innovations in the information sphere (book printing, telephone and radio communication, personal computers). It provides a technological basis for overcoming distances when transmitting information and makes possible integration of intellectual capabilities and spiritual powers of mankind.
63. Information Security (информационная безопасность) – it has three basic components: confidentiality, integrity and availability. Confidentiality refers to the protection of sensitive information from unauthorized disclosure. Integrity means safeguarding the accuracy and completeness of information and computer software. Availability relates to ensuring that information and vital services are available to users when required.
64. Information society (информационное общество) – a stage in the development of modern civilization which is characterized by the increasing social role of information and knowledge, an increase of the share of information products and services in GDP, formation of the global information space providing efficient interaction, access to world information resources and gratification of needs in information.
65. Information Warfare (информационная война) –any action to deny, exploit, corrupt, or destroy the enemy's information and its functions.
66. Information weapon (информационное оружие)– a combination of specialised methods and tools (physical, informational, programmatic, radio-electronic) meant to destroy temporally or for ever functions or services of the information infrastructure as a whole or some of its elements.
67. Information system (информационная система) –set of information resources organized for the collection, storage, processing, maintenance, use, sharing, dissemination, disposition, display, or transmission of information.
68. Intellectual property (интеллектуальная собственность) is a term referring to a number of distinct types of creations of the mind for which a set of exclusive rights are recognized—and the corresponding fields of law. While these rights are not actually property rights, the term "Property" is used because they resemble property rights in many ways. Under intellectual property law, owners are granted certain exclusive rights to a variety of intangible assets, such as musical, literary, and artistic works; discoveries and inventions; and words, phrases, symbols, and designs. Common types of intellectual property include copyrights, trademarks, patents, industrial design rights and trade secrets in some jurisdictions
69. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA – МАГАТЭ) - an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy.
70.An International terrorism –международный терроризм
71. Far right, extreme right, hard right, radical right, and ultra-right (ультраправые) are terms used to discuss the qualitative or quantitative position a group or person occupies within right-wing politics. The terms are often used to imply that someone is an extremist. The terms have been used by different scholars in somewhat conflicting ways
72. Freedom House (Дом свободы) – an international non-governmental organization (NGO) based in Washington, D.C. that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom and human rights.
73. Focus group – фокус-группа
74. A phobia (фобия) is an irrational, intense and persistent fear of certain situations, activities, things, animals, or people. The main symptom of this disorder is the excessive and unreasonable desire to avoid the feared stimulus.
75. Global information infrastructure (GII) (глобальная информационная инфраструктура (ГИИ) –A new information structure which has been initiated by a group of the developed countries in 1995. GII is meant to become an integrated global information network for mass servicing of the population of our planet. It will be based on the integration of global and regional information and communication systems, systems of digital television and radio, satellite systems and mobile communication.
76. GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) – глобальные системы мобильных коммуникаций
77. Globalisation (глобализация) – a worldwide process based on dissemination of information products, systems and technology which brings rapid economic and cultural integration. Proponents see possibilities for future progress under the conditions of global information society development. Opponents warn against dangers to national cultural traditions.
78. Governance (активное правление) - process through which institutions, businesses and citizens' groups articulate their interests, exercise their rights and obligations, allocate human choices and opportunities, and mediate their differences. This entails exploring ways in which knowledge societies can employ more efficient, transparent, and participatory forms of governance: locally, regionally, nationally, and globally.
79. Knowledge (знания) –result of human cognitive activity.
80. Legal aspects of computing (информационное право) are related to various areas of law. Cyberlaw is a term that encapsulates the legal issues related to use of communicative, transactional, and distributive aspects of networked information devices and technologies. It is less a distinct field of law than property or contract law, as it is a domain covering many areas of law and regulation. Some leading topics include intellectual property, privacy, freedom of expression, and jurisdiction. Information Technology Law (or IT Law) is a set of recent legal enactments, currently in existence in several countries, which governs the process and dissemination of information digitally
81. Lobbyism – лоббизм
82. Mafia (мафия) is a term used to describe a number of criminal organizations around the world
83. MI-6, The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS) (Секре́тная разве́дывательная слу́жба)is responsible for supplying the British Government with foreign intelligence
84. Mind control (also known as brainwashing, coercive persuasion, mind abuse, thought control, or thought reform) (Контроль сознания, управление разумом, реформирование мышления) refers to a process in which a group or individual "systematically uses unethically manipulative methods to persuade others to conform to the wishes of the manipulator(s), often to the detriment of the person being manipulated". The term has been applied to any tactic, psychological or otherwise, which can be seen as subverting an individual's sense of control over their own thinking, behavior, emotions or decision making
85. Near abroad (ближнее зарубежье) - in political language of Russia and some other post-Soviet states, the near abroad refers to the newly-independent republics which emerged after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The term has been used in English since the early 1990s, usually to assert Russia's right to have major influence in the region.
86. Peacekeeping (Миротворческие силы ООН) is defined by the United Nations as "a unique and dynamic instrument developed by the Organization as a way to help countries torn by conflict create the conditions for lasting peace". It is distinguished from both peacebuilding and peacemaking.
87. Pejoratives (or terms of abuse) (пейоратив или пейоративный)are words or grammatical forms that denote a negative effect; that is, they express the contempt or distaste of the speaker. Sometimes a term may begin as a pejorative word and eventually be adopted in a non-pejorative sense.
88. Psychological manipulation (манипуляция массовым созна́нием)is a type of social influence that aims to change the perception or behavior of others through underhanded, deceptive, or even abusive tactics. By advancing the interests of the manipulator, often at the other's expense, such methods could be considered exploitative, abusive, devious, and deceptive.
89. Mass communication (массовая коммуникациия) – the process of transmitting information to a group of people simultaneously with the help of mass media
90. Media amplification– намеренно выравненое представление малосравнимых факторов, технология информационно-психологического воздействия на общественное сознание через СМИ.
91. Military operations other than war – Операции ВС США, проводимые в «особых условиях мирного времени».
92. Multimedia (мультимедиа) –1. Combination of many media using, for example, sound, pictures, and text. 2. Interaction of visual and audio effects under special software control. Usually means a combination of text, sound and graphics, recently also that of animation and video. A characteristic (if not a determining) feature of multimedia web nodes and CDs are hyperlinks. 3. Combination of voice, text, data, as well as still and moving images. A multimedia database, for example, would contain textual information, images, video clips, and tables of data, all equally easy to access. A multimedia telecommunication service would permit the user to send or receive any of these forms of information, interchangeability at will.
93. Name calling – приклеивание ярлыков
94. Network organization (сетевая организация) – organizations which use in production and business management network communications, relations and technologies.
95. Network technologies (сетевые технологии) – technologies providing network mode of interaction.
96. Network (сеть) – a collection of computers and related devices connected in such a way that users can share software and hardware (for example, printers) and communicate with each other.
97. Neoliberalism (неолиберализм) describes a market-driven approach to economic and social policy based on neoclassical theories of economics that stresses the efficiency of private enterprise, liberalized trade and relatively open markets, and therefore seeks to maximize the role of the private sector in determining the political and economic priorities of the state.
98. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization or NATO, also called the (North) Atlantic Alliance (НА́ТО, Северо-Атлантический Альянс) is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949.
99. A non-governmental organization (NGO) (неправительственная организация) is a legally constituted organization created by natural or legal persons that operates independently from any government and a term usually used by governments to refer to entities that have no government status. In the cases in which NGOs are funded totally or partially by governments, the NGO maintains its non-governmental status by excluding government representatives from membership in the organization.
100. Object (объект) –passive entity containing or receiving information. Access to an object implies access to the information it contains.
101. The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) (ОБСЕ) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization. Its mandate includes issues such as arms control, human rights, freedom of the press and fair elections.
102. Organized crime or criminal organizations (организованная преступность) are transnational, national, or local groupings of highly centralized enterprises run by criminals for the purpose of engaging in illegal activity, most commonly for monetary profit
103. The Peacebuilding Commission (Комиссия ООН по миростроительству) was established in December 2005 by the United Nations General Assembly and the Security Council acting concurrently. It is an inter-governmental advisory body that will help countries in post-conflict peace building, recovery, reconstruction and development
104. Peace operations – миротворческие операции
105. Peace keeping – операции по поддержанию мира
106. Peace making – операции по принуждению к миру
107. Peace еnforcement – операции по установлению мира
108. Personal data (персональные данные) –information on facts, events and circumstances of citizen’s life which enables him/her to be identified.
109. PDA: personal digital assistants (or I-mode) (персональный электронный помощник) –miniature electronic devices performing information storage, processing and transmission functions.
110. Plain Folks – «игра в простонародье»
111. Press-office – пресс-центр
112. Press-officer – сотрудник дипломатического представительства (посольства, миссии), ответственный за связь с печатью
113. Proprietary information (секретная внутрикорпоративная информация) –material and information relating to or associated with a company's products, business, or activities.
114. Proxy war or proxy warfare (опосредованная война)is a war that results when opposing powers use third parties as substitutes for fighting each other directly. While powers have sometimes used governments as proxies, violent non-state actors, mercenaries, or other third parties are more often employed. It is hoped that these groups can strike an opponent without leading to full-scale war. Proxy wars have also been fought alongside full-scale conflicts. It is almost impossible to have a pure proxy war, as the groups fighting for a certain nation usually have their own interests, which can diverge from those of their patron
115. Risk (риск) –possibility that a particular threat will adversely impact an IS.
116. Risk analysis (анализ риска) –examination of information to identify the risk to an IS.
117. Risk assessment (оценка рисков) –process of analyzing threats to and vulnerabilities of an IS, and the potential impact resulting from the loss of information or capabilities of a system. This analysis is used as a basis for identifying appropriate and cost-effective security countermeasures.
118. Risk management (управление рисками) – process of managing risks to agency operations (including mission, functions, image, or reputation), agency assets, or individuals resulting from the operation of an information system.
Rational Unified Process (RUP) — методология разработки программного обеспечения, созданная компанией Rational Software. Ранняя идентификация и непрерывное (до окончания проекта) устранение основных рисков.
120. Retention (ретенция) –the ability to retain facts and figures in memory
121. Sabotage (диверсия) is a deliberate action aimed at weakening another entity through subversion, obstruction, disruption, or destruction. In a workplace setting, sabotage is the conscious withdrawal of efficiency generally directed at causing some change in workplace conditions. One who engages in sabotage is a saboteur. As a rule, saboteurs try to conceal their identities because of the consequences of their actions. For example, whereas an environmental pressure group might be happy to be identified with an act of sabotage, it would not want the individual identities of the perpetrators known
122. Self-preservation (самосохранение, инстинкт самосохранения) is behavior that ensures the survival of an organism. It is universal among living organisms. In some vertebrates, pain and fear are parts of this mechanism. Pain causes discomfort so that the organism is inclined to stop the pain. Fear causes the organism to seek safety and may cause a release of adrenaline.
123. Special forces or Special Operations Forces (SOF) (подразделе́ния специа́льного назначе́ния (СпН) are highly-trained military units, used in a variety of roles
124. Security – безопасность
125. Security Scanner – сканер безопасности
126. Security controls (Средства управления; устройства управления) –management, operational, and technical controls (i.e., safeguards or countermeasures) prescribed for an information system to protect the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of the system and its information.
127. Security requirements (требования безопасности) –types and levels of protection necessary for equipment, data, information, applications, and facilities to meet IS security policy.
128. Sensitive information (ценная информация; конфиденциальная информация, уязвимая информация) –information, the loss, misuse, or unauthorized access to or modification of, that could adversely affect the national interest or the conduct of federal programs, or the privacy to which individuals are entitled under 5 U.S.C.
129. Sphere of influence (сфера влияния) – in the field of international relations, a sphere of influence (SOI) is an area or region over which a state or organization has significant cultural, economic, military or political influence. In more extreme cases, a country within the "sphere of influence" of another more powerful country may become a subsidiary of that state and serve in effect as a satellite state or de facto colony.
130. Social impact of ICT (социальное воздействие ИКТ) – impact of ICT on society: labor and employment, economics, education, culture, social structure, home and family, everyday life.
131. Subject (предмет, субъект) –generally an individual, process, or device causing information to flow among objects or change to the system state.
132. A superpower (сверхдержава) is a state with a dominant position in the international system which has the ability to influence events and its own interests and project power on a worldwide scale to protect those interests. A superpower is traditionally considered to be one step higher than a great power.
133. Sustainable development (устойчивое развитие) is a pattern of resource use that aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment so that these needs can be met not only in the present, but also for generations to come.
134. The Third Way (третий путь) refers to various political positions which try to reconcile right-wing and left-wing politics by advocating a varying synthesis of right-wing economic and left-wing social policies. Third Way approaches are commonly viewed from within the first- and second-way perspectives as representing a centrist reconciliation between capitalism and socialist command economy.
135. Telecommunications (телекоммуникации) – process of remote data transmission based on modern ICT
136. Teleconference (телеконференция) – an event where group communication between remote participants is performed with the help of ICT (telephone conference, audio conference, internet chat, mail conferences, video conference, etc.).
137. Testimonial – ссылка на авторитеты
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