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Ex. 29. Put these sentences into reported speech.


1. The shop-assistant said to the customer: “The price does not include the cost of packing”.

2. She asked the manager: “How long have you doing business with this company?”

3. The secretary said to me: “I’m trying to contact this enterprise now”.

4. The tax inspector asked: “Do you always reduce the prices at the end of the year?”

5. The sales manager said: “We have already solved the problem”.

6. The secretary said: “We are discussing the prices at the moment”.

7. The reporter asked: “What is your company producing now?”

8. The banker said to the customer: “The recent devaluation of dollar has caused a setback in


9. The sellers asked the buyers: “When will you come here to discuss our new price-list?”

10. His friend asked me: “What do you know about this company?”



Ex. 30. Translate into Russian. (Conditionals)


1. If incomes are rising, the demand for goods and services will tend to increase.

2. If the consultant had done more careful research, he would have identified the gap in the


3. If a government cuts taxation, it gains a lot of popular support.

4. If the price of butter fell, the demand for margarine would probably fall.

5. If the market for our product expands, we will have a 20 per cent increase in turnover next


6. If we had installed the equipment we would have become more competitive.

7. If wages rise, unemployment will increase.

8. We would have to reduce out workforce if the bank refused to extend out credit.

9. If the government hadn’t introduced the tax incentive scheme, we would have faced serious

financial difficulties.

10. If the supplier of such a commodity were to raise the price, many buyers would turn to the

close substitutes.





1. What is the central problem of economics?

2. What questions must every society provide answers to?

3. What is traditional economy based on?

4. What does planned economy rely upon to provide the answers to the three major

economic questions?

Traditional economy

1. In what way are the answers to most What, How and Who questions decided?

2. Where are usually traditional economy systems found?

3. Where do most of the people in traditional economy live in?

4. What are the main activities of people living in traditional economy?

5. In what way are the goods and services produced in traditional economy?

6. How do most individuals live in traditional economy?

7. What happens to people when the harvest is poor?

8. When does a surplus exist?

9. How is a surplus distributed?

10. Where may the most part of the product go?

11. How are the remains distributed?



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