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How were the bold and underlined lexical items formed? Write your answers in the space provided.
#3 MORPHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF THE WORD
If we describe a word as an autonomies unit of language in which a particular meaning is associated with a particular sound complex. The smallest unit is morpheme. Morpheme is the smallest and to face language unit possessing both sound form and meaning. Morpheme does not occur as free forms but only as constituency of words. Morphemes do not possess grammatical meaning. For instance, “manful”, “manly” – morpheme “man” – has no case, no number.
Morphemes can be free and bound.
Free morpheme – has a meaning. Bound – if to cut, has no meaning at all.
According to the role morphemes play in constituent words they are subdivided into two large classes. Roots/Radicals and Affixes. According to their position: infixes, prefixes, suffixes --- etymology, native, borrowed.
According to the function – derivational as for meaning – functional – endings.
Root or Radicals – lexical nuclear of a word and it has an individual lexical meaning.
A suffix is a derivational morpheme following the stem and forming a new derivative in a different part of speech or a different word class. For example, heart – to hearten (different parts of speech).
A prefix is a derivational meaning standing before root and modifying the meaning
order --- disorder.
An infix is an affix within the word, this type is not productive.
According to the morphemic analyses the words may be classified into:
Exercise 1. Answer the questions:
1. What is a morpheme?
2. Give examples to the morpheme.
3. Tell about the subdivision of the morpheme.
4. What about the position of the morphemes?
5. Give examples to prefixes, suffixes.
Exercise 2. Denote the morphological structure of the 10 morphemes. Consult a dictionary.
Exercise3. Provide the lexeme(s) for the underlined word-forms in the sentences below. Provide the grammatical unit(s) for the word-form “shot”.
1. Rabbits used to play on it, one of the few places in Europe where rabbits were in no danger of being shot.
2. Mr. Owen, 45, had shot his mother-in-law, wife and three children to death before killing himself.
3. One was shot at Horsham in 1849.
4. Weaver ran through the gap between the houses, waving his right hand almost uselessly as he snapped off a second shot at Bodie.
5. While I was away, somebody shot him in the neck.
6. Jessamy jumped back as quickly as if she had been shot.
7. He might have shot Lincoln.
8. During the rioting one Palestinian man was shot dead by Israeli soldiers and over 100 others were injured, many as a result of being shot.
Exercise 4. Subdivide all the following words of native origin into a) Indo-European, b) Germanic, c) English proper.
Daughter, woman, room, land, cow, moon, sea, red, spring, three, I, lady, always, goose, bear, fox, lord, tree, nose, birch, grey, old, glad, daisy, heart, hand, night, to eat, to see, to make.
Exercise 5. Below are given some etymological data for several everyday English words. Study their origins and meanings (in dictionaries). From what language do you think each of them was actually borrowed? What was the immediate source of borrowing?
BEAUTY n ME beaute OF from L ‘pretty’
CHARACTER n ME caracter OF caractere L Gr charakter ‘stamp, impress’
DEMAND v OF demander L (de)mandare ‘order’
DOUBLE a ME OF L duplus (duo ‘two’)
DOUBT v ME OF doute L dubitare ‘doubt’
MEDDLE v ME OF Rom L miscere ‘mix’
PLANE n IT L planus ‘flat’
PLEASE v ME plaise OF plaisir L placere ‘please, placate’
PLEASURE n ME plesir OF plaisir
REDUCE n ME L (re)ducere (duct ‘bring’)
SENTIMENT n ME OF med L sentimentum (L sentire ‘feel’)
UMBRELLA n IT ombrella (dim.of ombra ‘shade’) L umbra ‘shade’
Exercise 6. State from what languages the following words are borrowed. Comment on their meaning.
Alarm, algebra, anchor, artel, banana, bandura, cannibal, canoe, caravan, cargo, chimpanzee, chocolate, cocoa, colonel, czar, devil, dollar, gorilla, guerilla, hopak, jungle, kangaroo, kindergarten, khaki, law, lilac, machine, maize, mazurka, mule, nun, opera, pagoda, piano, potato, school, skipper, squaw, steppe, tobacco, taboo, tomato, umbrella, verandah, verst, vanilla, violin, waltz, wigwam, zinc.
Exercise 7. Explain the etymology of the following words. Write them out in three columns: a) fully assimilated words; b) partially assimilated words; c) unassimilated words. Explain the reasons for your choice in each case.
Pen, hors d’oeuvre, ballet, beet, butter, skin, take, cup, police, distance, monk, garage, phenomenon, wine, large, justice, lesson, criterion, nice, coup d’etat, sequence, gay, port, river, loose, autumn, low, uncle, law, convenient, lunar, experiment, skirt, bishop, regime, eau-de-Cologne, act, aim, arm, art, ball, bank, baron, beauty, beef, bon mot, branch, brilliant, butcher, capital, captain, chauffeur, city, close, colleague, command, commence, count, courage, crime, cry, decide, degree, delight, emperor, employee, etiquette, exposure, face, fatigue, finance, foyer, fruit, gazette, genre, honour, hour, legal, leisure, machine, measure, minister, monsieur, mutton, naive, nation, office, pass, pleasure, poet, restore.
Exercise 8. Mind the following translation-loans. State the language they came from.
Blitzkrieg, bon mot, collective farm, Sisyphean labour, coup d’etat, enfant terrible, kindergarten, leitmotiv, persona grata, prima donna, swan-song, tete-a-tete, Fatherland, blue-stocking, the fair sex, wonder child, heel of Achilles, the moment of truth, mother tongue, Procrustean bed, five-year plan, masterpiece, sword of Damocles.
Exercise 9. Using a dictionary compare the meaning of the following pairs of words and explain why they are called ‘etymological doublets’.
Abridge – abbreviate, artist – artiste, captain – chieftain, card – chart, cavalry – chivalry, catch – chase, corps – corpse, canal – channel, gage – wage, hale– whole, hotel – hospital, legal – loyal, liquor – liqueur, of – off, pauper – poor, raise – rear, rout – route, senior – sir, scar – share, skirt – shirt, shadow – shade, suit – suite, salon – saloon, .
Exercise 10. Comment on international words. Arrange the following international words into groups taking into account the sphere of life and man’s activities they refer to: a) scientific, b) cultural, c) technical, d) political.
Motor, sputnik, concert, constitution, evolution, phonetics, drama, parliament, decree, telegraph, meeting, pact, melody, history, lecture, republic, tractor, allegro, revolution, radio, dialectics, formula, gas, nylon, sport, club, bank, comedy, materialism, opera, jazz, civil, lyric, stadium, poet, analysis, cybernetics, satellite, rector, idea, film, electron, biology, idealism, robot, computer, printer.
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