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WORD-FORMATION

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  1. AIMS AND PRINCIPLES OF MORPHEMIC AND WORD-FORMATION ANALYSIS
  2. CONVERSION AND OTHER TYPES OF WORD-FORMATION

 

How were the bold and underlined lexical items formed? Write your answers in the space provided.

 

  I slept that night in a large airy cabin, and breakfasted on coffee and hotcakes.  
  This plants exquisite pink and white blooms look much like sugar icing cake decorations.  
  In 1998 nearly a million homes were burgled, almost 20% up on the previous year.  
  As long as youre careful, theres no reason why a laze in the sun shouldnt be just what the doctor ordered!  
  I was used to my local corner shop that stayed open until midnight, its freezer full of dim sum, the deli counter a treasure of sauces and salads and fresh pasta.  
  Only Sandy Lyle, who was 17 under in the 1983 Swiss Open, has bettered that halfway score on the PGA tour.  
  They accepted an objectionable, racially-discriminatory basis on which Hong Kong citizenship would be decided.  
  He admitted his hit factory had stage-managed much of her career, using the age-old ploy of staying ahead of the game.  
  The Defence Secretary, Fidel Ramos, briefed the cabinet and senators yesterday on an alleged plot to assassinate Mrs Aquino, which came to light in February.  
  Skiing adventurers have taken to heli-skiing which involves learning to operate an electronic transmitter in case of avalanches.  
  You should have heard her when she got that craze for Vegetarianism and Bernard Shaw.  
  And then, just after Id fallen asleep, as I thought, there was the damned organ moaning away and it was 6 a.m. again.  
  Dot gave her the violet-patterned hanky that used to belong to Henrietta Forbes-Read to wipe her eyes.  
  He plunged for the side, but with three swift strokes Nails caught up with him and collared him round the neck.   To prevent a heavy landing as the airbrakes are opened, a backward movement is needed on the stick to increase the wings angle of attack to maintain the same amount of lift as before.  
  The Governments main fear for the coming year is that the economy will enter a period of stagflation, with minimal growth combined with stubborn inflationary pressures.  
  After having woken the girl, Duncan led her into the palace as they followed the policeman, past the small queue of tourists and other visitors who were waiting to sightsee.  
  The seeds and skins of the peppers are removed from the sauce, which is then bottled.  
  There are lots of ideas for foodie gifts crystallised fruit, truffles, biscuits, petits fours - and tips on decorative packaging.    
  Photographs can reduce the scale of a monument or enlarge a detail for scrutiny.  
  Every time you want to mail to the list, or unsub suspend mail through listserv, your current address is checked against the one on the list.  
  This gig is part of an edutainment organized to uncelebrate Christopher Columbus and his 1492 discovery of a continent where 100 million people already lived.  
  In addition to the serious and much publicized problem of badger baiting and digging, there is the appalling road-kill statistic of some 47,500 badgers a year.  

 



#3 MORPHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF THE WORD



 

If we describe a word as an autonomies unit of language in which a particular meaning is associated with a particular sound complex. The smallest unit is morpheme. Morpheme is the smallest and to face language unit possessing both sound form and meaning. Morpheme does not occur as free forms but only as constituency of words. Morphemes do not possess grammatical meaning. For instance, manful, manly morpheme man has no case, no number.

Morphemes can be free and bound.

Free morpheme has a meaning. Bound if to cut, has no meaning at all.

According to the role morphemes play in constituent words they are subdivided into two large classes. Roots/Radicals and Affixes. According to their position: infixes, prefixes, suffixes --- etymology, native, borrowed.

According to the function derivational as for meaning functional endings.

Root or Radicals lexical nuclear of a word and it has an individual lexical meaning.

A suffix is a derivational morpheme following the stem and forming a new derivative in a different part of speech or a different word class. For example, heart to hearten (different parts of speech).

A prefix is a derivational meaning standing before root and modifying the meaning

order --- disorder.

An infix is an affix within the word, this type is not productive.

According to the morphemic analyses the words may be classified into:

MORPHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE ROOT BOY
DERIVATIVES BOYISH
COMPOUND BOYFRIEND
COMPOUND DERIVATIVES + SUFFIX BLUE-EYED

 

Exercise 1. Answer the questions:

1. What is a morpheme?

2. Give examples to the morpheme.

3. Tell about the subdivision of the morpheme.

4. What about the position of the morphemes?

5. Give examples to prefixes, suffixes.

Exercise 2. Denote the morphological structure of the 10 morphemes. Consult a dictionary.

Exercise3. Provide the lexeme(s) for the underlined word-forms in the sentences below. Provide the grammatical unit(s) for the word-form shot.

1. Rabbits used to play on it, one of the few places in Europe where rabbits were in no danger of being shot.

2. Mr. Owen, 45, had shot his mother-in-law, wife and three children to death before killing himself.

3. One was shot at Horsham in 1849.

4. Weaver ran through the gap between the houses, waving his right hand almost uselessly as he snapped off a second shot at Bodie.

5. While I was away, somebody shot him in the neck.

6. Jessamy jumped back as quickly as if she had been shot.

7. He might have shot Lincoln.

8. During the rioting one Palestinian man was shot dead by Israeli soldiers and over 100 others were injured, many as a result of being shot.

Exercise 4. Subdivide all the following words of native origin into a) Indo-European, b) Germanic, c) English proper.

Daughter, woman, room, land, cow, moon, sea, red, spring, three, I, lady, always, goose, bear, fox, lord, tree, nose, birch, grey, old, glad, daisy, heart, hand, night, to eat, to see, to make.

 

Exercise 5. Below are given some etymological data for several everyday English words. Study their origins and meanings (in dictionaries). From what language do you think each of them was actually borrowed? What was the immediate source of borrowing?

BEAUTY n ME beaute OF from L pretty

CHARACTER n ME caracter OF caractere L Gr charakter stamp, impress

DEMAND v OF demander L (de)mandare order

DOUBLE a ME OF L duplus (duo two)

DOUBT v ME OF doute L dubitare doubt

MEDDLE v ME OF Rom L miscere mix

PLANE n IT L planus flat

PLEASE v ME plaise OF plaisir L placere please, placate

PLEASURE n ME plesir OF plaisir

REDUCE n ME L (re)ducere (duct bring)

SENTIMENT n ME OF med L sentimentum (L sentire feel)

UMBRELLA n IT ombrella (dim.of ombra shade) L umbra shade

 

Exercise 6. State from what languages the following words are borrowed. Comment on their meaning.

Alarm, algebra, anchor, artel, banana, bandura, cannibal, canoe, caravan, cargo, chimpanzee, chocolate, cocoa, colonel, czar, devil, dollar, gorilla, guerilla, hopak, jungle, kangaroo, kindergarten, khaki, law, lilac, machine, maize, mazurka, mule, nun, opera, pagoda, piano, potato, school, skipper, squaw, steppe, tobacco, taboo, tomato, umbrella, verandah, verst, vanilla, violin, waltz, wigwam, zinc.

 

Exercise 7. Explain the etymology of the following words. Write them out in three columns: a) fully assimilated words; b) partially assimilated words; c) unassimilated words. Explain the reasons for your choice in each case.

Pen, hors doeuvre, ballet, beet, butter, skin, take, cup, police, distance, monk, garage, phenomenon, wine, large, justice, lesson, criterion, nice, coup detat, sequence, gay, port, river, loose, autumn, low, uncle, law, convenient, lunar, experiment, skirt, bishop, regime, eau-de-Cologne, act, aim, arm, art, ball, bank, baron, beauty, beef, bon mot, branch, brilliant, butcher, capital, captain, chauffeur, city, close, colleague, command, commence, count, courage, crime, cry, decide, degree, delight, emperor, employee, etiquette, exposure, face, fatigue, finance, foyer, fruit, gazette, genre, honour, hour, legal, leisure, machine, measure, minister, monsieur, mutton, naive, nation, office, pass, pleasure, poet, restore.

Exercise 8. Mind the following translation-loans. State the language they came from.

Blitzkrieg, bon mot, collective farm, Sisyphean labour, coup detat, enfant terrible, kindergarten, leitmotiv, persona grata, prima donna, swan-song, tete-a-tete, Fatherland, blue-stocking, the fair sex, wonder child, heel of Achilles, the moment of truth, mother tongue, Procrustean bed, five-year plan, masterpiece, sword of Damocles.

Exercise 9. Using a dictionary compare the meaning of the following pairs of words and explain why they are called etymological doublets.

Abridge abbreviate, artist artiste, captain chieftain, card chart, cavalry chivalry, catch chase, corps corpse, canal channel, gage wage, hale whole, hotel hospital, legal loyal, liquor liqueur, of off, pauper poor, raise rear, rout route, senior sir, scar share, skirt shirt, shadow shade, suit suite, salon saloon, .

Exercise 10. Comment on international words. Arrange the following international words into groups taking into account the sphere of life and mans activities they refer to: a) scientific, b) cultural, c) technical, d) political.

Motor, sputnik, concert, constitution, evolution, phonetics, drama, parliament, decree, telegraph, meeting, pact, melody, history, lecture, republic, tractor, allegro, revolution, radio, dialectics, formula, gas, nylon, sport, club, bank, comedy, materialism, opera, jazz, civil, lyric, stadium, poet, analysis, cybernetics, satellite, rector, idea, film, electron, biology, idealism, robot, computer, printer.

 

 


: 2015-09-14; : 12;


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