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Complete the following examples of polysemy in English, and note the degree to which they correspond with Czech.


Heavy - food, meals, supper

- rain, storm (does not exist in Czech)

- drinker, eater, smoker








A vocabulary is enriched not only by words but also by phraseological units. According to V.Vinogradov, phraseological units can be classified accordingly:

1. to the way they are formed;

2. to the degree of the motivation of their meaning;

3. to their structure;

4. to the part of speech meaning.

The set expressions are used in one of the same composition. They are not varied in the sentence and are put in the sentence as the words being ready.

No substitution of any element is possible. In the following stereotype set expressions:

“All the world and his wife”;

“The man in the street”;

“Red tape”;

“Calf love”;

“Busy as a bee”.

According to the type of motivation three types of phraseological units are suggested:

Phraseological Fusions

Phraseological unities

Phraseological collocations/phraseological combination.

Phraseological fusions – represent the higher stage of blending together. “As mad as a hater”. The history of the expressions shows it has nothing to do with, the makers or sellers of hat.

Phraseological unities – clearly motivated. “To stand to one’s guns – to refuse, to change statements, one’s opinion.


Exercise 1. Answer the questions:

1. What is phraseology?

2. What is a set expression?

3. What is a free word group?

4. What is a proverb?

5. What is a saying, cliché?

6. What is an idiom?

Exercise 2. Give 10 examples to the followings:

1. Set expressions

2. Proverbs

3. Sayings

4. Clichés

5. Idioms

Exercise 3. Identify the phrasal categories of the underlined constituents and say which patterns the following sentences belong to.

1. My new printer works fast and quietly.

2. “Well... your parents appointed me your guardian.”

3. Mark seems a reliable guy.

4. I asked for some information.

5. Clark didn’t envy Kirillin the mission.

6. Voldemort wants Harry out of the way.

7. Mother wants me to complete my education.

8. The President’s phone rang.

9. He rang the doorbell once.

10. He answered his office door at the first knock.

11. The eggs boiled hard.

12. My car drives fast.

13. Your son has grown tall.

14. My head hurts so badly!

15. My helmet hurts my head so badly!




1 Animal metaphors – do you know their meaning?

I had butterflies in the stomach.

He’s got bats in the belfry.

She’s a real cat.

”I won’t have it“, he barked.

He’s a hawk. She’s a dove.

She rammed the key into the lock.

Fill in the blanks with these words into the table

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