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Translate the following derived words according to the models.
Model: verb stem + –ance/ence ® noun
+ –ant/ent ® adjective
To differ – различаться ® difference – различие ® different – различный.
To allow ® allowance; to appear ® appearance;
to continue ® continuance; to maintain ® maintenance;
to resist ® resistance, resistant;
to please ® pleasant, pleasance.
2. Read the following international words. What Russian words do they associate with?
Model: problem – проблема, вопрос, задача.
Selection, material, stable, structure, minimum, synthetic, texture, foundation, economy, traditional, natural, percentage, circulation.
3. Find the antonyms in each line.
1) dense a) tight; b) loose; c) close; d) thick.
2) modern a) present; b) up to date; c) ancient; d) contemporary.
3) strengthen a) reinforce; b) to support; c) weaken; d) avoid.
4) fine a) thin; b) little; c) coarse; d) excellent.
4. Translate the following words and word-combinations.
1. Agent ® fine agent ® fine agent layer
2. Stone ® cut stone ® cut stone tiles
3. Fibre ® synthetic fibre ® synthetic-fibre carpeting
4. Flooring ® resilient flooring ® resilient flooring materials
5. Tile ® quarry tile ® quarry tile floor
6. Floor ® ground floor ® suspended timber ground floor
5. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate words.
1. Floors comprise an … part of both the structure and the interior.
2. The thickness of concrete can be measured by using timber … punched into the blinding.
3. There are many types of floor finishes including synthetic-fibre … .
4. Cut stone tiles of marble or granite are applied with epoxy … to the substrate.
5. Synthetic floor coverings are usually classified as … floors.
6. Gaps are left to allow air circulation and to minimize the risk of dry … in the timbers.
7. Hardcore is a careful selection of … material.
(carpeting, rot, integral, dense, adhesive, pegs, resilient)
6. Read and translate the text.
Basically, there are two kinds of floors for interiors: those that are an integral part of the structure (hardcore) and those that are applied after the structure is completed (floor finishes).
Hardcore is a careful selection of hard, dense material such as broken brick or stone which is chemically stable. It can be strengthened by careful grading and compaction to form a firm foundation for the structure.
To avoid using more concrete than the required minimum, since concrete is expensive, the hardcore is often "dressed" (or finished) with a fine agent layer of 50 mm average thickness of cement/sand in a 1:2 mix. This can be levelled easily using the profile boards as a standard to receive the concrete. The thickness of concrete both for foundations and oversite can be measured by using timber pegs punched at intervals into the soil or blinding. These pegs should mark the required thickness so that when the mark is covered the thickness has been achieved.
A further economy effected quite often in modern house construction is the use of oversite concrete as the ground floor. If adopted this will require the introduction of a waterproof membrane.
Floor finish is designed at a later stage and is often changed in the course of a building's life. In areas of higher traffic harder surfaces may be used--for example, cut stone tiles of marble or granite, ceramic tile applied with epoxy adhesive to the substrate, or terrazzo, but these materials, beautiful as they are, tend to be too costly as surface applications. Floor finishes in commercial and institutional uses make considerable use of synthetic-fibre carpeting and vinyl composition tile.
Synthetic floor coverings are usually classified as resilient floors. The resilient flooring materials include linoleum, cork, and vinyl. Basically, resilient floor tiles are excellent flooring materials that are both economical and easily maintained. They can be given almost any appearance, which is a temptation that manufacturers are unable to resist. When the tiles are plain, in good colours or textures, they are very attractive and appropriate, but often they are made to imitate stone, brick, mosaic, or other materials, and the results are generally of a less satisfactory nature.
Quarry (unglazed) tile is a dense pressed fireclay product for floors, patios, and industrial installations in which great resistance to abrasion or acids is required. Ceramic and quarry tiles are made not only for such areas as bathrooms but are suitable for almost any space. Installation usually requires a cement bed over the existing subfloor, making this material difficult to use in existing buildings. Like other natural materials, quarry-tile floors possess a natural beauty and have the additional advantage of easy maintenance.
A small percentage of traditional construction still uses suspended timber ground floors with sleeper walls from the oversite supporting floor joists of rather small spans of about 1.5 to 2.0 m. Gaps are left to allow air circulation via air bricks in the outer walls to minimize the risk of dry rot in the timbers. This form of construction provides an added benefit of a space beneath the floor for installation of services.
7. Fill in the needed prepositions (of, for, from, in, with, by).
1. Hardcore can be strengthened … careful grading and compaction.
2. Terrazzo is a mosaic flooring consisting … small pieces … marble or granite set … mortar and given a high polish.
3. Floor finish is often changed … the course … a building's life.
4. Ceramic tiles are suitable … almost any space including bathrooms.
5. A small percentage … traditional construction still uses suspended timber ground floors … sleeper walls.
6. Acoustical tiles are manufactured … fibreboard or other sound-absorbing materials.
7. First buildings were built … protection … the weather.
8. Find in the text synonyms to the given words.
Man-made, binding agent, essential, wood, opening, minute, solid.
9. Agree or disagree with the following statements.
1. Hardcore is applied after the structure is completed.
2. To reduce its cost the hardcore is often "dressed" with a fine agent layer.
3. Timber pegs mark the required thickness of floor finish.
4. Cut stone tiles of marble or granite, ceramic tile, terrazzo are very expensive as floor finishes.
5. Synthetic-fibre carpeting and vinyl composition tiles are used for residential buildings.
6. The resilient flooring materials include linoleum, cork, and vinyl.
7. Unglazed tile is a dense product for industrial installations in which great resistance to abrasion is of little importance.
8. Quarry-tile floors are hard to maintain.
9. A small percentage of traditional construction still uses suspended timber ground floors.
10. Suspended timber ground floors provide space beneath the floor for installation of services.
10. Answer the questions to the text.
1. What are the main types of interior floors?
2. What is a hardcore?
3. What are the ways to reduce the expenses of its production?
4. What do we use timber pegs for?
5. What materials are used as floor finishes in areas of heavy traffic?
6. Where are resilient floors applied?
7. What are the advantages of resilient floors? Their disadvantages?
8. What are the benefits of quarry tiles? Their drawbacks?
9. How are they installed?
10. What other types of floor finishes do you know?
11. What do we leave gaps for?
12. What is the advantage of such a construction?
11. Imagine that you are a professional designer. Suggest the most appropriate kind of floor covering for the following interior spaces and explain your choice.
· hall of the primary school
· private bathroom
· lecture room
· jewellery boutique
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